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EFFECT OF CORIOLIS AND CENTRIFUGAL FORCES ON TURBULENCE AND TRANSPORT AT HIGH ROTATION AND BUOYANCY NUMBERS

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Date Issued:
2004
Abstract/Description:
This study attempts to understand one of the most fundamental and challenging problems in fluid flow and heat transfer for rotating machines. The study focuses on gas turbines and electric generators for high temperature and high energy density applications, respectively, both which employ rotating cooling channels so that materials do not fail under high temperature and high stress environment.Prediction of fluid flow and heat transfer inside internal cooling channels that rotate at high rotation number and high density ratio similar to those that are existing in turbine blades and generator rotors is the main focus of this study. Both smooth-wall and rib-roughened channels are considered here. Rotation, buoyancy, bends, ribs and boundary conditions affect the flow inside theses channels. Introducing ribs inside internal cooling channel can enhance the heat transfer rate. As the introduction of ribs approach causes rapid increase in the severely limited pressure drop and requires high cost, other means of achieving high heat transfer rate are desired. Another approach to increase heat transfer rate to a values that are comparable to those achieved by introduction of ribs is to increase rotation number. One objective of this research is to study and compare theses two approaches in order to decide the optimum range of application and a possible replacement of the high-cost and complex ribs by increasing rotation number.A fully computational approach is employed in this study. On the basis of comparison between two-equation (k-e and k-w) and RSM turbulence models, it is concluded that the two-equation turbulence models cannot predict the flow field and heat transfer correctly, while RSM showed improved prediction. For the near wall region, two approaches with standard wall functions and enhanced near wall treatment were investigated. The enhanced near wall approach showed superior results to the standard wall functions approach. Thus RSM with enhanced near wall treatment is validated against available experimental data (which are primarily at low rotation and buoyancy numbers). The model was then used for cases with high rotation numbers (as much as 1.29) and high-density ratios (up to 0.4). Particular attention is given to how turbulence intensity, Reynolds stresses and transport are affected by Coriolis and buoyancy/centrifugal forces caused by high levels of rotation and density ratio. The results obtained are explained in view of physical interpretation of Coriolis and centrifugal forces. Investigation of channels with smooth and with rib-roughened walls that are rotating about an orthogonal axis showed that increasing rotation number always enhances turbulence and the heat transfer rate, while at high rotation numbers, increasing density ratio although causes higher turbulence activity but dose not increase Nu and in some locations even decreases Nu. The increasing thermal boundary layer thickness near walls is the possible reason for this behavior of Nu. The heat transfer enhancement correlates linearly with rotation number and hence it is possible to derive linear correlation for the increase in Nu as a function of Ro. Investigation of channels with rib-roughened walls that rotate about orthogonal axis showed that 4-side-average Nur correlates with Ro linearly, where a linear correlation for Nur/Nus as a function of rotation number is derived. It is also observed that the heat transfer rate on smooth-wall channel can be enhanced rapidly by increasing Ro to values that are comparable to the enhancement due to the introduction of ribs inside internal cooling channels. This observation suggests that ribs may be unnecessary in high-speed machines, and has tremendous implications for possible cost savings in these turbines.In square channels that are rotating about parallel axis, the heat transfer rate enhances by increasing Ro on three surfaces of the square channel and decreases on the fourth surface. Th
Title: EFFECT OF CORIOLIS AND CENTRIFUGAL FORCES ON TURBULENCE AND TRANSPORT AT HIGH ROTATION AND BUOYANCY NUMBERS.
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Name(s): Sleiti, Ahmad Khalaf, Author
Kapat, Jay, Committee Chair
University of Central Florida, Degree Grantor
Type of Resource: text
Date Issued: 2004
Publisher: University of Central Florida
Language(s): English
Abstract/Description: This study attempts to understand one of the most fundamental and challenging problems in fluid flow and heat transfer for rotating machines. The study focuses on gas turbines and electric generators for high temperature and high energy density applications, respectively, both which employ rotating cooling channels so that materials do not fail under high temperature and high stress environment.Prediction of fluid flow and heat transfer inside internal cooling channels that rotate at high rotation number and high density ratio similar to those that are existing in turbine blades and generator rotors is the main focus of this study. Both smooth-wall and rib-roughened channels are considered here. Rotation, buoyancy, bends, ribs and boundary conditions affect the flow inside theses channels. Introducing ribs inside internal cooling channel can enhance the heat transfer rate. As the introduction of ribs approach causes rapid increase in the severely limited pressure drop and requires high cost, other means of achieving high heat transfer rate are desired. Another approach to increase heat transfer rate to a values that are comparable to those achieved by introduction of ribs is to increase rotation number. One objective of this research is to study and compare theses two approaches in order to decide the optimum range of application and a possible replacement of the high-cost and complex ribs by increasing rotation number.A fully computational approach is employed in this study. On the basis of comparison between two-equation (k-e and k-w) and RSM turbulence models, it is concluded that the two-equation turbulence models cannot predict the flow field and heat transfer correctly, while RSM showed improved prediction. For the near wall region, two approaches with standard wall functions and enhanced near wall treatment were investigated. The enhanced near wall approach showed superior results to the standard wall functions approach. Thus RSM with enhanced near wall treatment is validated against available experimental data (which are primarily at low rotation and buoyancy numbers). The model was then used for cases with high rotation numbers (as much as 1.29) and high-density ratios (up to 0.4). Particular attention is given to how turbulence intensity, Reynolds stresses and transport are affected by Coriolis and buoyancy/centrifugal forces caused by high levels of rotation and density ratio. The results obtained are explained in view of physical interpretation of Coriolis and centrifugal forces. Investigation of channels with smooth and with rib-roughened walls that are rotating about an orthogonal axis showed that increasing rotation number always enhances turbulence and the heat transfer rate, while at high rotation numbers, increasing density ratio although causes higher turbulence activity but dose not increase Nu and in some locations even decreases Nu. The increasing thermal boundary layer thickness near walls is the possible reason for this behavior of Nu. The heat transfer enhancement correlates linearly with rotation number and hence it is possible to derive linear correlation for the increase in Nu as a function of Ro. Investigation of channels with rib-roughened walls that rotate about orthogonal axis showed that 4-side-average Nur correlates with Ro linearly, where a linear correlation for Nur/Nus as a function of rotation number is derived. It is also observed that the heat transfer rate on smooth-wall channel can be enhanced rapidly by increasing Ro to values that are comparable to the enhancement due to the introduction of ribs inside internal cooling channels. This observation suggests that ribs may be unnecessary in high-speed machines, and has tremendous implications for possible cost savings in these turbines.In square channels that are rotating about parallel axis, the heat transfer rate enhances by increasing Ro on three surfaces of the square channel and decreases on the fourth surface. Th
Identifier: CFE0000014 (IID), ucf:52854 (fedora)
Note(s): 2004-05-01
Ph.D.
College of Engineering and Computer Science, Department of Mechanical, Materials, and Aerospace Engineering
This record was generated from author submitted information.
Subject(s): Internal cooling
turbomachinery
CFD
Heat Transfer
Fluid flow
Electric generators cooling
Channels with ribs
Persistent Link to This Record: http://purl.flvc.org/ucf/fd/CFE0000014
Restrictions on Access: campus 2005-01-31
Host Institution: UCF

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