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THE EFFECT OF FREE CHLORINE AND CHLORAMINES ON LEAD RELEASE IN A DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

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Date Issued:
2005
Abstract/Description:
Total lead release in drinking water in the presence of free chlorine and chloramine residuals was investigated in field, laboratory and fundamental investigations for finished waters produced from ground (GW), surface (SW), saline (RO) and blended (B) sources. Field investigations found more total lead was released in the presence of chloramines than in the presence of free chlorine for RO and blended finished waters; however, there were no statistical differences in total lead release to finished GW and SW. Laboratory measurements of finished waters oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) were equivalent by source and were not affected by the addition of more than 100 mg/L of sulfates or chlorides, but were significantly higher in the presence of free chlorine relative to chloramines. Development of Pourbaix diagrams revealed the PbO2 was the controlling solid phase at the higher ORP in the presence of free chlorine and Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2(s) (hydrocerussite) was the controlling solid phase in the presence of chloramines at the lower ORP, which mechanistically accounted for the observed release of total lead as PbO2 is much less soluble than hydrocerussite. The lack of differences in total lead release to finished GW and SW was attributed to differences in water quality and intermittent behavior of particulate release from controlling solid films.
Title: THE EFFECT OF FREE CHLORINE AND CHLORAMINES ON LEAD RELEASE IN A DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM.
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Name(s): Vasquez, Ferdinand, Author
Taylor, James , Committee Chair
University of Central Florida, Degree Grantor
Type of Resource: text
Date Issued: 2005
Publisher: University of Central Florida
Language(s): English
Abstract/Description: Total lead release in drinking water in the presence of free chlorine and chloramine residuals was investigated in field, laboratory and fundamental investigations for finished waters produced from ground (GW), surface (SW), saline (RO) and blended (B) sources. Field investigations found more total lead was released in the presence of chloramines than in the presence of free chlorine for RO and blended finished waters; however, there were no statistical differences in total lead release to finished GW and SW. Laboratory measurements of finished waters oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) were equivalent by source and were not affected by the addition of more than 100 mg/L of sulfates or chlorides, but were significantly higher in the presence of free chlorine relative to chloramines. Development of Pourbaix diagrams revealed the PbO2 was the controlling solid phase at the higher ORP in the presence of free chlorine and Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2(s) (hydrocerussite) was the controlling solid phase in the presence of chloramines at the lower ORP, which mechanistically accounted for the observed release of total lead as PbO2 is much less soluble than hydrocerussite. The lack of differences in total lead release to finished GW and SW was attributed to differences in water quality and intermittent behavior of particulate release from controlling solid films.
Identifier: CFE0000533 (IID), ucf:46427 (fedora)
Note(s): 2005-05-01
M.S.
Engineering and Computer Science, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Masters
This record was generated from author submitted information.
Subject(s): Lead release
drinking water
distribution system
chlorine
chloramines
ORP
water quality
Pourbaix diagrams
Persistent Link to This Record: http://purl.flvc.org/ucf/fd/CFE0000533
Restrictions on Access: public
Host Institution: UCF

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