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RADIATION STUDIES OF THE TIN-DOPED MICROSCOPIC DROPLET LASER PLASMA LIGHT SOURCE SPECIFIC TO EUV LITHOGRAPHY

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Date Issued:
2006
Abstract/Description:
Extreme ultraviolet lithography(EUVL) is being developed worldwide as the next generation technology to be inserted in ~ 2009 for the mass production of IC chips with feature sizes <35 nm. One major challenge to its implementation is the development of a 13.5 nm EUV source of radiation that meets the requirements of current roadmap designs of the source of illumination in commercial EUVL scanners. The light source must be debris-free, in a free-space environment with the imaging EUV optics that must provide sufficient, narrow spectral band EUV power to print 100 wafers/hr. To meet this need, extensive studies on emission from a laser plasma source utilizing tin-doped droplet target was conducted. Presented in this work, are the many optical techniques such as spectroscopy, radiometry, and imaging, that were employed to characterize and optimize emission from the laser plasma source State of the art EUV spectrographs were employed to observe the source's spectrum under various laser irradiation conditions. Comparing the experimental spectra to those from theory, has allowed the determination of the Sn ion stages responsible for emitting into the useful EUV bandwidth. Experimental results were compared to spectral simulations obtained using Collisional-Radiative Equilibrium (CRE) model, as well. Moreover, extensive measurements surveying source emission from 2 nm to 30 nm, which is the region of the electromagnetic spectrum defined as EUV, was accomplished. Absolutely calibrated metrology was employed with the Flying Circus instrument from which the source's conversion efficiency (CE)--from laser to the useful EUV energy--was characterized under various laser irradiation conditions. Hydrodynamic simulations of the plasma expansion together with the CRE model predicted the condition at which optimum conversion could be attained. The condition was demonstrated experimentally, with the highest CE to be slightly above 2%, which is the highest value among all EUV source contenders. In addition to laser intensity, the CE was found to depend on the laser wavelength. For better understanding, this observation is compared to results from simulations. Through a novel approach in imaging, the size of the plasma was characterized by recording images of the plasma within a narrow band, around 13.5 nm. The size, approximately 100 ìm, is safely within the etendue limit set by the optical elements in the EUV scanner. Finally, the notion of irradiating the target with multiple laser beams was explored for the possibility of improving the source's conversion efficiency.
Title: RADIATION STUDIES OF THE TIN-DOPED MICROSCOPIC DROPLET LASER PLASMA LIGHT SOURCE SPECIFIC TO EUV LITHOGRAPHY.
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Name(s): Koay, Chiew-Seng, Author
Richardson, Martin, Committee Chair
University of Central Florida, Degree Grantor
Type of Resource: text
Date Issued: 2006
Publisher: University of Central Florida
Language(s): English
Abstract/Description: Extreme ultraviolet lithography(EUVL) is being developed worldwide as the next generation technology to be inserted in ~ 2009 for the mass production of IC chips with feature sizes <35 nm. One major challenge to its implementation is the development of a 13.5 nm EUV source of radiation that meets the requirements of current roadmap designs of the source of illumination in commercial EUVL scanners. The light source must be debris-free, in a free-space environment with the imaging EUV optics that must provide sufficient, narrow spectral band EUV power to print 100 wafers/hr. To meet this need, extensive studies on emission from a laser plasma source utilizing tin-doped droplet target was conducted. Presented in this work, are the many optical techniques such as spectroscopy, radiometry, and imaging, that were employed to characterize and optimize emission from the laser plasma source State of the art EUV spectrographs were employed to observe the source's spectrum under various laser irradiation conditions. Comparing the experimental spectra to those from theory, has allowed the determination of the Sn ion stages responsible for emitting into the useful EUV bandwidth. Experimental results were compared to spectral simulations obtained using Collisional-Radiative Equilibrium (CRE) model, as well. Moreover, extensive measurements surveying source emission from 2 nm to 30 nm, which is the region of the electromagnetic spectrum defined as EUV, was accomplished. Absolutely calibrated metrology was employed with the Flying Circus instrument from which the source's conversion efficiency (CE)--from laser to the useful EUV energy--was characterized under various laser irradiation conditions. Hydrodynamic simulations of the plasma expansion together with the CRE model predicted the condition at which optimum conversion could be attained. The condition was demonstrated experimentally, with the highest CE to be slightly above 2%, which is the highest value among all EUV source contenders. In addition to laser intensity, the CE was found to depend on the laser wavelength. For better understanding, this observation is compared to results from simulations. Through a novel approach in imaging, the size of the plasma was characterized by recording images of the plasma within a narrow band, around 13.5 nm. The size, approximately 100 ìm, is safely within the etendue limit set by the optical elements in the EUV scanner. Finally, the notion of irradiating the target with multiple laser beams was explored for the possibility of improving the source's conversion efficiency.
Identifier: CFE0000938 (IID), ucf:46733 (fedora)
Note(s): 2006-05-01
Ph.D.
Optics and Photonics,
Doctorate
This record was generated from author submitted information.
Subject(s): EUV
lithography
laser plasma
light source
tin
mass limited target
Persistent Link to This Record: http://purl.flvc.org/ucf/fd/CFE0000938
Restrictions on Access: campus 2007-01-31
Host Institution: UCF

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