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Microscopic Assessment of Transportation Emissions on Limited Access Highways

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Date Issued:
2012
Abstract/Description:
On-road vehicles are a major source of transportation carbon dioxide (CO2) greenhouse gas emissions in all the developed countries, and in many of the developing countries in the world. Similarly, several criteria air pollutants are associated with transportation, e.g., carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and particulate matter (PM). The need to accurately quantify transportation-related emissions from vehicles is essential. Transportation agencies and researchers in the past have estimated emissions using one average speed and volume on a long stretch of roadway. With MOVES, there is an opportunity for higher precision and accuracy. Integrating a microscopic traffic simulation model (such as VISSIM) with MOVES allows one to obtain precise and accurate emissions estimates. The new United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) mobile source emissions model, MOVES2010a (MOVES) can estimate vehicle emissions on a second-by-second basis creating the opportunity to develop new software (")VIMIS 1.0(") (VISSIM/MOVES Integration Software) to facilitate the integration process. This research presents a microscopic examination of five key transportation parameters (traffic volume, speed, truck percentage, road grade and temperature) on a 10-mile stretch of Interstate 4 (I-4) test bed prototype; an urban limited access highway corridor in Orlando, Florida. The analysis was conducted utilizing VIMIS 1.0 and using an advanced custom design technique; D-Optimality and I-Optimality criteria, to identify active factors and to ensure precision in estimating the regression coefficients as well as the response variable.The analysis of the experiment identified the optimal settings of the key factors and resulted in the development of Micro-TEM (Microscopic Transportation Emissions Meta-Model). The main purpose of Micro-TEM is to serve as a substitute model for predicting transportation emissions on limited access highways to an acceptable degree of accuracy in lieu of running simulations using a traffic model and integrating the results in an emissions model. Furthermore, significant emission rate reductions were observed from the experiment on the modeled corridor especially for speeds between 55 and 60 mph while maintaining up to 80% and 90% of the freeway's capacity. However, vehicle activity characterization in terms of speed was shown to have a significant impact on the emission estimation approach.Four different approaches were further examined to capture the environmental impacts of vehicular operations on the modeled test bed prototype. First, (at the most basic level), emissions were estimated for the entire 10-mile section (")by hand(") using one average traffic volume and average speed. Then, three advanced levels of detail were studied using VISSIM/MOVES to analyze smaller links: average speeds and volumes (AVG), second-by-second link driving schedules (LDS), and second-by-second operating mode distributions (OPMODE). This research analyzed how the various approaches affect predicted emissions of CO, NOx, PM and CO2. The results demonstrated that obtaining accurate and comprehensive operating mode distributions on a second-by-second basis improves emission estimates. Specifically, emission rates were found to be highly sensitive to stop-and-go traffic and the associated driving cycles of acceleration, deceleration, frequent braking/coasting and idling. Using the AVG or LDS approach may overestimate or underestimate emissions, respectively, compared to an operating mode distribution approach.Additionally, model applications and mitigation scenarios were examined on the modeled corridor to evaluate the environmental impacts in terms of vehicular emissions and at the same time validate the developed model (")Micro-TEM("). Mitigation scenarios included the future implementation of managed lanes (ML) along with the general use lanes (GUL) on the I-4 corridor, the currently implemented variable speed limits (VSL) scenario as well as a hypothetical restricted truck lane (RTL) scenario. Results of the mitigation scenarios showed an overall speed improvement on the corridor which resulted in overall reduction in emissions and emission rates when compared to the existing condition (EX) scenario and specifically on link by link basis for the RTL scenario.The proposed emission rate estimation process also can be extended to gridded emissions for ozone modeling, or to localized air quality dispersion modeling, where temporal and spatial resolution of emissions is essential to predict the concentration of pollutants near roadways.
Title: Microscopic Assessment of Transportation Emissions on Limited Access Highways.
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Name(s): Abou-Senna, Hatem, Author
Radwan, Ahmed, Committee Chair
Abdel-Aty, Mohamed, Committee Member
Al-Deek, Haitham, Committee Member
Cooper, Charles, Committee Member
Johnson, Mark, Committee Member
University of Central Florida, Degree Grantor
Type of Resource: text
Date Issued: 2012
Publisher: University of Central Florida
Language(s): English
Abstract/Description: On-road vehicles are a major source of transportation carbon dioxide (CO2) greenhouse gas emissions in all the developed countries, and in many of the developing countries in the world. Similarly, several criteria air pollutants are associated with transportation, e.g., carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and particulate matter (PM). The need to accurately quantify transportation-related emissions from vehicles is essential. Transportation agencies and researchers in the past have estimated emissions using one average speed and volume on a long stretch of roadway. With MOVES, there is an opportunity for higher precision and accuracy. Integrating a microscopic traffic simulation model (such as VISSIM) with MOVES allows one to obtain precise and accurate emissions estimates. The new United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) mobile source emissions model, MOVES2010a (MOVES) can estimate vehicle emissions on a second-by-second basis creating the opportunity to develop new software (")VIMIS 1.0(") (VISSIM/MOVES Integration Software) to facilitate the integration process. This research presents a microscopic examination of five key transportation parameters (traffic volume, speed, truck percentage, road grade and temperature) on a 10-mile stretch of Interstate 4 (I-4) test bed prototype; an urban limited access highway corridor in Orlando, Florida. The analysis was conducted utilizing VIMIS 1.0 and using an advanced custom design technique; D-Optimality and I-Optimality criteria, to identify active factors and to ensure precision in estimating the regression coefficients as well as the response variable.The analysis of the experiment identified the optimal settings of the key factors and resulted in the development of Micro-TEM (Microscopic Transportation Emissions Meta-Model). The main purpose of Micro-TEM is to serve as a substitute model for predicting transportation emissions on limited access highways to an acceptable degree of accuracy in lieu of running simulations using a traffic model and integrating the results in an emissions model. Furthermore, significant emission rate reductions were observed from the experiment on the modeled corridor especially for speeds between 55 and 60 mph while maintaining up to 80% and 90% of the freeway's capacity. However, vehicle activity characterization in terms of speed was shown to have a significant impact on the emission estimation approach.Four different approaches were further examined to capture the environmental impacts of vehicular operations on the modeled test bed prototype. First, (at the most basic level), emissions were estimated for the entire 10-mile section (")by hand(") using one average traffic volume and average speed. Then, three advanced levels of detail were studied using VISSIM/MOVES to analyze smaller links: average speeds and volumes (AVG), second-by-second link driving schedules (LDS), and second-by-second operating mode distributions (OPMODE). This research analyzed how the various approaches affect predicted emissions of CO, NOx, PM and CO2. The results demonstrated that obtaining accurate and comprehensive operating mode distributions on a second-by-second basis improves emission estimates. Specifically, emission rates were found to be highly sensitive to stop-and-go traffic and the associated driving cycles of acceleration, deceleration, frequent braking/coasting and idling. Using the AVG or LDS approach may overestimate or underestimate emissions, respectively, compared to an operating mode distribution approach.Additionally, model applications and mitigation scenarios were examined on the modeled corridor to evaluate the environmental impacts in terms of vehicular emissions and at the same time validate the developed model (")Micro-TEM("). Mitigation scenarios included the future implementation of managed lanes (ML) along with the general use lanes (GUL) on the I-4 corridor, the currently implemented variable speed limits (VSL) scenario as well as a hypothetical restricted truck lane (RTL) scenario. Results of the mitigation scenarios showed an overall speed improvement on the corridor which resulted in overall reduction in emissions and emission rates when compared to the existing condition (EX) scenario and specifically on link by link basis for the RTL scenario.The proposed emission rate estimation process also can be extended to gridded emissions for ozone modeling, or to localized air quality dispersion modeling, where temporal and spatial resolution of emissions is essential to predict the concentration of pollutants near roadways.
Identifier: CFE0004777 (IID), ucf:49788 (fedora)
Note(s): 2012-12-01
Ph.D.
Engineering and Computer Science, Civil, Environmental and Construction Engineering
Doctoral
This record was generated from author submitted information.
Subject(s): Greenhouse Gas Emissions -- GHG -- Carbon Dioxide -- CO2 -- Transportation Emissions -- VISSIM -- MOVES -- VISSIM/MOVES -- VIMIS -- Micro-TEM -- Transportation Emissions Model -- Vehicle Specific Power -- VSP -- Operating Mode Distributions -- Opmode -- Limited Access Highways -- Custom Design -- Optimal Designs -- D-Optimal -- I-Optimal -- Air Quality Impacts -- Environmental Impacts -- ML -- RTL -- VSL
Persistent Link to This Record: http://purl.flvc.org/ucf/fd/CFE0004777
Restrictions on Access: public 2013-06-15
Host Institution: UCF

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