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Photo-induced Protonation of Polyaniline Composites and Mechanistic Study of the Degradation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls with Zero-Valent Magnesium

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Date Issued:
2014
Abstract/Description:
As technology advances, a need for non-metal, conductive materials has arisen for several types of applications. Lithographic techniques are helpful to develop some of these applications. Such techniques require materials that are insulating and become conductive after irradiated. Composites of polyaniline in its emeraldine base form (PANI-EB) doped with photo-acid generators (PAG) become conductive upon photo-irradiation. This increase in conductivity is due to the protonation of PANI-EB. Such materials may be utilized to fabricate conducting patterns by photo-irradiation; however, the conductivity obtained by direct irradiation of PANI-EB/PAG composites is normally quite low ((<)10-3 S/cm) due to aggregation of highly loaded PAG. In this work, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), a proton transfer polymer, was added to PANI-EB/PAG. Results showed the addition of low molecular weight (MW) (550) PEG significantly enhanced the photo-induced conductivity to a level comparable to that of PANI-salt synthesized by oxidizing aniline in the presence of an acid. High MW (8000) PEG is less effective than PEG 550, and composites of PANI-EB and N-PEG-PANI showed conductivity as high as 102 S/cm after treatment with HCl vapor. The photo-induced conductivity of the N-PEG-PANI/PANI-EB/PAG composite reached 10-2-10-1 S/cm. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of chemicals with 209 different congeners, some of which are known carcinogens, and are persistent organic pollutants in the environment. After its synthesis, it was seen as a phenomenal additive in a multitude of different applications leading to the wide spread use of PCBs and a need for a safe, effective, and inexpensive remediation technique. While it is known that magnesium can degrade PCBs, the mechanism of this reaction was not well-understood. In order for magnesium to be broadly used as a remediation tool, it is necessary to fully understand how the reaction is taking place and if the PCBs are able to be fully dechlorinated into biphenyl. This research focuses on the hydrodechlorination of PCBs with zero-valent magnesium in acidified ethanol. The degradation pathways of 2, 2', 3, 5, 5', 6- hexachlorobiphenyl were investigated to determine the identity of the daughter PCBs produced, how and if they continue to be dechlorinated into biphenyl. The proton source for this hydrodehalogenation reaction was also studied using both deuterated solvent and acid to give more detail to the mechanism of this reaction.
Title: Photo-induced Protonation of Polyaniline Composites and Mechanistic Study of the Degradation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls with Zero-Valent Magnesium.
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Name(s): Kirkland, Candace, Author
Yestrebsky, Cherie, Committee Chair
Campiglia, Andres, Committee Member
Clausen, Christian, Committee Member
Frazer, Andrew, Committee Member
Duranceau, Steven, Committee Member
University of Central Florida, Degree Grantor
Type of Resource: text
Date Issued: 2014
Publisher: University of Central Florida
Language(s): English
Abstract/Description: As technology advances, a need for non-metal, conductive materials has arisen for several types of applications. Lithographic techniques are helpful to develop some of these applications. Such techniques require materials that are insulating and become conductive after irradiated. Composites of polyaniline in its emeraldine base form (PANI-EB) doped with photo-acid generators (PAG) become conductive upon photo-irradiation. This increase in conductivity is due to the protonation of PANI-EB. Such materials may be utilized to fabricate conducting patterns by photo-irradiation; however, the conductivity obtained by direct irradiation of PANI-EB/PAG composites is normally quite low ((<)10-3 S/cm) due to aggregation of highly loaded PAG. In this work, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), a proton transfer polymer, was added to PANI-EB/PAG. Results showed the addition of low molecular weight (MW) (550) PEG significantly enhanced the photo-induced conductivity to a level comparable to that of PANI-salt synthesized by oxidizing aniline in the presence of an acid. High MW (8000) PEG is less effective than PEG 550, and composites of PANI-EB and N-PEG-PANI showed conductivity as high as 102 S/cm after treatment with HCl vapor. The photo-induced conductivity of the N-PEG-PANI/PANI-EB/PAG composite reached 10-2-10-1 S/cm. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of chemicals with 209 different congeners, some of which are known carcinogens, and are persistent organic pollutants in the environment. After its synthesis, it was seen as a phenomenal additive in a multitude of different applications leading to the wide spread use of PCBs and a need for a safe, effective, and inexpensive remediation technique. While it is known that magnesium can degrade PCBs, the mechanism of this reaction was not well-understood. In order for magnesium to be broadly used as a remediation tool, it is necessary to fully understand how the reaction is taking place and if the PCBs are able to be fully dechlorinated into biphenyl. This research focuses on the hydrodechlorination of PCBs with zero-valent magnesium in acidified ethanol. The degradation pathways of 2, 2', 3, 5, 5', 6- hexachlorobiphenyl were investigated to determine the identity of the daughter PCBs produced, how and if they continue to be dechlorinated into biphenyl. The proton source for this hydrodehalogenation reaction was also studied using both deuterated solvent and acid to give more detail to the mechanism of this reaction.
Identifier: CFE0005513 (IID), ucf:50308 (fedora)
Note(s): 2014-12-01
Ph.D.
Sciences, Chemistry
Doctoral
This record was generated from author submitted information.
Subject(s): photo-acid -- conductive polymer -- polyaniline -- polychlorinated biphenyl -- hydrodehalogenation -- grignard-like
Persistent Link to This Record: http://purl.flvc.org/ucf/fd/CFE0005513
Restrictions on Access: public 2014-12-15
Host Institution: UCF

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