You are here

Scandia and ceria stabilized zirconia based electrolytes and anodes for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells: Manufacturing and properties

Download pdf | Full Screen View

Date Issued:
2013
Abstract/Description:
Scandia and ceria stabilized zirconia (10 mol% Sc2O3 (-) 1 mol% CeO2 (-) ZrO2, SCSZ) has superior ionic conductivity in the intermediate temperature range for the operation of solid oxide fuel cells, but it does not exhibit good phase stability in comparison with yttria stabilized zirconia (8 mol% Y2O3 (-) ZrO2, YSZ). To maintain high ionic conductivity and improve the stability of the electrolyte, layered structures with YSZ outer layers and SCSZ inner layers were designed, along with the referential electrolytes containing pure SCSZ or YSZ. The electrolytes were manufactured by tape casting, laminating, and pressureless sintering techniques. After sintering, while the thickness of YSZ outer layers remained constant at ~30 ?m, the thickness of inner layers of SCSZ for the 3-, 4- and 6-layer designs varied at ~30, ~60 and ~120 ?m, respectively. Selected characterizations were employed to study the structure, morphology, impurity content and the density of the electrolytes. Furthermore, in situ X-ray diffraction, neutron diffraction and Raman scattering were carried out to study the phase transition and lattice distortion during long-term annealing at 350 (&)deg;C and 275 (&)deg;C for SCSZ and YSZ, respectively, where the dynamic damping occurred when Young's modulus was measured.In YSZ/SCSZ electrolytes, thermal residual stresses and strains were generated due to the mismatch of coefficients of thermal expansion from each layer of different compositions. They could be adjusted by varying the thickness ratios of each layer in different designs of laminates. The theoretical residual stresses have been calculated for different thickness ratios. The effect of thermal residual stress on the biaxial flexural strength was studied in layered electrolytes. The biaxial flexure tests of electrolytes with various layered designs were performed using a ring-on-ring method at both room temperature and 800 (&)deg;C. The maximum principal stress during fracture indicated an increase of flexural strength in the electrolytes with layered structure at both temperatures in comparison with the electrolytes without compositional gradient. Such an increase of strength is the result of the existence of residual compressive stresses in the outer YSZ layer. In addition, Weibull statistics of the strength values were built for the layered electrolytes tested at room temperature, and the effect of thermal residual stresses on Weibull distribution was established. The calculation of residual stress present at the outer layers was verified. The high ionic conductivity was maintained with layered electrolyte designs in the intermediate temperature range. It was also established that the ionic conductivity of layered electrolytes exhibited 7% (-) 11% improvement at 800 (&)deg;C due to the stress/strain effects, and the largest improvements in a certain electrolyte was found to nearly coincide with the largest residual compressive strain in the outer YSZ layer.In addition to the study of layered electrolytes, mechanical properties of porous Ni/SCSZ cermet were studied. The anode materials were reduced by 65 wt% NiO (-) 35 wt% SCSZ (N65) and 50 wt% NiO (-) 50 wt% SCSZ (N50) porous ceramics in the forming gas. Young's modulus as well as strength and fracture toughness of non-reduced and reduced anodes has been measured, both at room and high temperatures. High temperature experiments were performed in the reducing environment of forming gas. It was shown that while at 700 (&)deg;C and 800 (&)deg;C the anode specimens exhibited purely brittle deformation, a brittle-to-ductile transition occurred at 800 (-) 900 (&)deg;C, and the anode deformed plastically at 900 (&)deg;C. Fractography of the anode specimens were studied to identify the fracture modes of the anodes tested at different temperatures.
Title: Scandia and ceria stabilized zirconia based electrolytes and anodes for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells: Manufacturing and properties.
14 views
8 downloads
Name(s): Chen, Yan, Author
Orlovskaya, Nina, Committee Chair
An, Linan, Committee Member
Chen, Quanfang, Committee Member
Sohn, Yongho, Committee Member
Raghavan, Seetha, Committee Member
Huang, Xinyu, Committee Member
University of Central Florida, Degree Grantor
Type of Resource: text
Date Issued: 2013
Publisher: University of Central Florida
Language(s): English
Abstract/Description: Scandia and ceria stabilized zirconia (10 mol% Sc2O3 (-) 1 mol% CeO2 (-) ZrO2, SCSZ) has superior ionic conductivity in the intermediate temperature range for the operation of solid oxide fuel cells, but it does not exhibit good phase stability in comparison with yttria stabilized zirconia (8 mol% Y2O3 (-) ZrO2, YSZ). To maintain high ionic conductivity and improve the stability of the electrolyte, layered structures with YSZ outer layers and SCSZ inner layers were designed, along with the referential electrolytes containing pure SCSZ or YSZ. The electrolytes were manufactured by tape casting, laminating, and pressureless sintering techniques. After sintering, while the thickness of YSZ outer layers remained constant at ~30 ?m, the thickness of inner layers of SCSZ for the 3-, 4- and 6-layer designs varied at ~30, ~60 and ~120 ?m, respectively. Selected characterizations were employed to study the structure, morphology, impurity content and the density of the electrolytes. Furthermore, in situ X-ray diffraction, neutron diffraction and Raman scattering were carried out to study the phase transition and lattice distortion during long-term annealing at 350 (&)deg;C and 275 (&)deg;C for SCSZ and YSZ, respectively, where the dynamic damping occurred when Young's modulus was measured.In YSZ/SCSZ electrolytes, thermal residual stresses and strains were generated due to the mismatch of coefficients of thermal expansion from each layer of different compositions. They could be adjusted by varying the thickness ratios of each layer in different designs of laminates. The theoretical residual stresses have been calculated for different thickness ratios. The effect of thermal residual stress on the biaxial flexural strength was studied in layered electrolytes. The biaxial flexure tests of electrolytes with various layered designs were performed using a ring-on-ring method at both room temperature and 800 (&)deg;C. The maximum principal stress during fracture indicated an increase of flexural strength in the electrolytes with layered structure at both temperatures in comparison with the electrolytes without compositional gradient. Such an increase of strength is the result of the existence of residual compressive stresses in the outer YSZ layer. In addition, Weibull statistics of the strength values were built for the layered electrolytes tested at room temperature, and the effect of thermal residual stresses on Weibull distribution was established. The calculation of residual stress present at the outer layers was verified. The high ionic conductivity was maintained with layered electrolyte designs in the intermediate temperature range. It was also established that the ionic conductivity of layered electrolytes exhibited 7% (-) 11% improvement at 800 (&)deg;C due to the stress/strain effects, and the largest improvements in a certain electrolyte was found to nearly coincide with the largest residual compressive strain in the outer YSZ layer.In addition to the study of layered electrolytes, mechanical properties of porous Ni/SCSZ cermet were studied. The anode materials were reduced by 65 wt% NiO (-) 35 wt% SCSZ (N65) and 50 wt% NiO (-) 50 wt% SCSZ (N50) porous ceramics in the forming gas. Young's modulus as well as strength and fracture toughness of non-reduced and reduced anodes has been measured, both at room and high temperatures. High temperature experiments were performed in the reducing environment of forming gas. It was shown that while at 700 (&)deg;C and 800 (&)deg;C the anode specimens exhibited purely brittle deformation, a brittle-to-ductile transition occurred at 800 (-) 900 (&)deg;C, and the anode deformed plastically at 900 (&)deg;C. Fractography of the anode specimens were studied to identify the fracture modes of the anodes tested at different temperatures.
Identifier: CFE0005090 (IID), ucf:50750 (fedora)
Note(s): 2013-05-01
Ph.D.
Engineering and Computer Science, Materials Science Engineering
Doctoral
This record was generated from author submitted information.
Subject(s): Ionic conductivity -- Layered Electrolyte -- Manufacturing -- Mechanical properties -- Neutron diffraction -- Raman spectroscopy -- Residual stress -- Scandia and ceria stabilized zirconia -- Solid Oxide Fuel Cell -- X-ray diffraction -- Yttria stabilized zirconia
Persistent Link to This Record: http://purl.flvc.org/ucf/fd/CFE0005090
Restrictions on Access: campus 2014-11-15
Host Institution: UCF

In Collections