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Quantum Chemical Studies for the Engineering of Metal Organic Materials

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Date Issued:
2015
Abstract/Description:
Metal Organic Materials (MOM) are composed of transition metal ions as connectors and organic ligands as linkers. MOMs have been found to have high porosity, catalytic, and optical properties. Here we study the gas adsorption, color change, and non-linear optical properties of MOMs. These properties can be predicted using theoretical methods, and the results may provide experimentalists with guidance for rational design and engineering of novel MOMs. The theory levels used include semi-empirical quantum mechanical calculations with the PM7 Hamiltonian and, Density Functional Theory (DFT) to predict the geometry and electronic structure of the ground state, and Time Dependent DFT (TD-DFT) to predict the excited states and the optical properties.The molecular absorption capacity of aldoxime coordinated Zn(II) based MOMs (previously measured experimentally) is predicted by using PM7 Theory level. The 3D structures were optimized with and without host molecules inside the pores. The absorption capacity of these crystals was predicted to be 8H2 or 3N2 per unit cell. When going beyond this limit, the structural integrity of the bulk material becomes fractured and microcrystals are observed both experimentally and theoretically.The linear absorption properties of Co(II) based complexes are known to change color when the coordination number is altered. In order to understand the mechanism of this color change TD-DFT methods are employed. The chromic behavior of the Co(II) based complexes studied was confirmed to be due to a chain in coordination number that resulted in lower metal to ligand distances. These distances destabilize the occupied metal d orbitals, and as a consequence of this, the metal to ligand transition energy is lowered enough to allow the crystals to absorb light at longer wavelengths.Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) present an extension of MOM principles to the main group elements. The synthesis of ordered COFs is possible by using predesigned structures andcarefully selecting the building blocks and their conditions for assembly. The crystals formed by these systems often possess non-linear optical (NLO) properties. Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) is one of the most used optical processes. Currently, there is a great demand for materials with NLO optical properties to be used for optoelectronic, imaging, sensing, among other applications. DFT calculations can predict the second order hyperpolarizability ?2 and tensor components necessary to estimate NLO. These calculations for the ?2 were done with the use of the Berry's finite field approach. An efficient material with high ?2 was designed and the resulting material was predicted to be nearly fivefold higher than the urea standard.Two-photon absorption (2PA) is another NLO effect. Unlike SHG, it is not limited to acentric material and can be used development of in vivo bio-imaging agents for the brain. Pt(II) complexes with porphyrin derivatives are theoretically studied for that purpose. The mechanism of 2PA enhancement was identified. For the most efficient porphyrin, the large 2PA cross-section was found to be caused by a HOMO-LUMO+2 transition. This transition is strongly coupled to 1PA allowed Q-band HOMO-LUMO states by large transition dipoles. Alkyl carboxyl substituents delocalize the LUMO+2 orbital due to their strong ?-acceptor effect, enhancing transition dipoles and lowering the 2PA transition to the desirable wavelengths range.The mechanism 2PA cross-section enhancement of aminoxime and aldoxime ligands upon metal addition of is studied with TD-DFT methods. This mechanism of enhancement is found to be caused by the polarization of the ligand orbitals by the metal cation. After polarization an increase in ligand to ligand transition dipole moment. This enhancement of dipole moment is related to the increase in 2PA cross-sections.
Title: Quantum Chemical Studies for the Engineering of Metal Organic Materials.
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Name(s): Rivera Jacquez, Hector, Author
Masunov, Artem, Committee Chair
Balaeff, Alexander, Committee CoChair
Harper, James, Committee Member
Heider, Emily, Committee Member
Zou, Shengli, Committee Member
Kaden, William, Committee Member
University of Central Florida, Degree Grantor
Type of Resource: text
Date Issued: 2015
Publisher: University of Central Florida
Language(s): English
Abstract/Description: Metal Organic Materials (MOM) are composed of transition metal ions as connectors and organic ligands as linkers. MOMs have been found to have high porosity, catalytic, and optical properties. Here we study the gas adsorption, color change, and non-linear optical properties of MOMs. These properties can be predicted using theoretical methods, and the results may provide experimentalists with guidance for rational design and engineering of novel MOMs. The theory levels used include semi-empirical quantum mechanical calculations with the PM7 Hamiltonian and, Density Functional Theory (DFT) to predict the geometry and electronic structure of the ground state, and Time Dependent DFT (TD-DFT) to predict the excited states and the optical properties.The molecular absorption capacity of aldoxime coordinated Zn(II) based MOMs (previously measured experimentally) is predicted by using PM7 Theory level. The 3D structures were optimized with and without host molecules inside the pores. The absorption capacity of these crystals was predicted to be 8H2 or 3N2 per unit cell. When going beyond this limit, the structural integrity of the bulk material becomes fractured and microcrystals are observed both experimentally and theoretically.The linear absorption properties of Co(II) based complexes are known to change color when the coordination number is altered. In order to understand the mechanism of this color change TD-DFT methods are employed. The chromic behavior of the Co(II) based complexes studied was confirmed to be due to a chain in coordination number that resulted in lower metal to ligand distances. These distances destabilize the occupied metal d orbitals, and as a consequence of this, the metal to ligand transition energy is lowered enough to allow the crystals to absorb light at longer wavelengths.Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) present an extension of MOM principles to the main group elements. The synthesis of ordered COFs is possible by using predesigned structures andcarefully selecting the building blocks and their conditions for assembly. The crystals formed by these systems often possess non-linear optical (NLO) properties. Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) is one of the most used optical processes. Currently, there is a great demand for materials with NLO optical properties to be used for optoelectronic, imaging, sensing, among other applications. DFT calculations can predict the second order hyperpolarizability ?2 and tensor components necessary to estimate NLO. These calculations for the ?2 were done with the use of the Berry's finite field approach. An efficient material with high ?2 was designed and the resulting material was predicted to be nearly fivefold higher than the urea standard.Two-photon absorption (2PA) is another NLO effect. Unlike SHG, it is not limited to acentric material and can be used development of in vivo bio-imaging agents for the brain. Pt(II) complexes with porphyrin derivatives are theoretically studied for that purpose. The mechanism of 2PA enhancement was identified. For the most efficient porphyrin, the large 2PA cross-section was found to be caused by a HOMO-LUMO+2 transition. This transition is strongly coupled to 1PA allowed Q-band HOMO-LUMO states by large transition dipoles. Alkyl carboxyl substituents delocalize the LUMO+2 orbital due to their strong ?-acceptor effect, enhancing transition dipoles and lowering the 2PA transition to the desirable wavelengths range.The mechanism 2PA cross-section enhancement of aminoxime and aldoxime ligands upon metal addition of is studied with TD-DFT methods. This mechanism of enhancement is found to be caused by the polarization of the ligand orbitals by the metal cation. After polarization an increase in ligand to ligand transition dipole moment. This enhancement of dipole moment is related to the increase in 2PA cross-sections.
Identifier: CFE0005990 (IID), ucf:50777 (fedora)
Note(s): 2015-12-01
Ph.D.
Sciences, Chemistry
Doctoral
This record was generated from author submitted information.
Subject(s): Quantum Chemistry -- Molecular Physics -- Non-Linear Optics -- Computational Chemistry -- Metal Organic Materials -- Material Engineering -- DFT -- PM7 -- Porphyrins -- Two-Photon Absorption
Persistent Link to This Record: http://purl.flvc.org/ucf/fd/CFE0005990
Restrictions on Access: campus 2018-12-15
Host Institution: UCF

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