You are here

Towards Energy-Efficient and Reliable Computing: From Highly-Scaled CMOS Devices to Resistive Memories

Download pdf | Full Screen View

Date Issued:
2016
Abstract/Description:
The continuous increase in transistor density based on Moore's Law has led us to highly scaled Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) technologies. These transistor-based process technologies offer improved density as well as a reduction in nominal supply voltage. An analysis regarding different aspects of 45nm and 15nm technologies, such as power consumption and cell area to compare these two technologies is proposed on an IEEE 754 Single Precision Floating-Point Unit implementation. Based on the results, using the 15nm technology offers 4-times less energy and 3-fold smaller footprint. New challenges also arise, such as relative proportion of leakage power in standby mode that can be addressed by post-CMOS technologies. Spin-Transfer Torque Random Access Memory (STT-MRAM) has been explored as a post-CMOS technology for embedded and data storage applications seeking non-volatility, near-zero standby energy, and high density. Towards attaining these objectives for practical implementations, various techniques to mitigate the specific reliability challenges associated with STT-MRAM elements are surveyed, classified, and assessed herein. Cost and suitability metrics assessed include the area of nanomagmetic and CMOS components per bit, access time and complexity, Sense Margin (SM), and energy or power consumption costs versus resiliency benefits. In an attempt to further improve the Process Variation (PV) immunity of the Sense Amplifiers (SAs), a new SA has been introduced called Adaptive Sense Amplifier (ASA). ASA can benefit from low Bit Error Rate (BER) and low Energy Delay Product (EDP) by combining the properties of two of the commonly used SAs, Pre-Charge Sense Amplifier (PCSA) and Separated Pre-Charge Sense Amplifier (SPCSA). ASA can operate in either PCSA or SPCSA mode based on the requirements of the circuit such as energy efficiency or reliability. Then, ASA is utilized to propose a novel approach to actually leverage the PV in Non-Volatile Memory (NVM) arrays using Self-Organized Sub-bank (SOS) design. SOS engages the preferred SA alternative based on the intrinsic as-built behavior of the resistive sensing timing margin to reduce the latency and power consumption while maintaining acceptable access time.
Title: Towards Energy-Efficient and Reliable Computing: From Highly-Scaled CMOS Devices to Resistive Memories.
60 views
12 downloads
Name(s): Salehi Mobarakeh, Soheil, Author
DeMara, Ronald, Committee Chair
Fan, Deliang, Committee Member
Turgut, Damla, Committee Member
University of Central Florida, Degree Grantor
Type of Resource: text
Date Issued: 2016
Publisher: University of Central Florida
Language(s): English
Abstract/Description: The continuous increase in transistor density based on Moore's Law has led us to highly scaled Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) technologies. These transistor-based process technologies offer improved density as well as a reduction in nominal supply voltage. An analysis regarding different aspects of 45nm and 15nm technologies, such as power consumption and cell area to compare these two technologies is proposed on an IEEE 754 Single Precision Floating-Point Unit implementation. Based on the results, using the 15nm technology offers 4-times less energy and 3-fold smaller footprint. New challenges also arise, such as relative proportion of leakage power in standby mode that can be addressed by post-CMOS technologies. Spin-Transfer Torque Random Access Memory (STT-MRAM) has been explored as a post-CMOS technology for embedded and data storage applications seeking non-volatility, near-zero standby energy, and high density. Towards attaining these objectives for practical implementations, various techniques to mitigate the specific reliability challenges associated with STT-MRAM elements are surveyed, classified, and assessed herein. Cost and suitability metrics assessed include the area of nanomagmetic and CMOS components per bit, access time and complexity, Sense Margin (SM), and energy or power consumption costs versus resiliency benefits. In an attempt to further improve the Process Variation (PV) immunity of the Sense Amplifiers (SAs), a new SA has been introduced called Adaptive Sense Amplifier (ASA). ASA can benefit from low Bit Error Rate (BER) and low Energy Delay Product (EDP) by combining the properties of two of the commonly used SAs, Pre-Charge Sense Amplifier (PCSA) and Separated Pre-Charge Sense Amplifier (SPCSA). ASA can operate in either PCSA or SPCSA mode based on the requirements of the circuit such as energy efficiency or reliability. Then, ASA is utilized to propose a novel approach to actually leverage the PV in Non-Volatile Memory (NVM) arrays using Self-Organized Sub-bank (SOS) design. SOS engages the preferred SA alternative based on the intrinsic as-built behavior of the resistive sensing timing margin to reduce the latency and power consumption while maintaining acceptable access time.
Identifier: CFE0006493 (IID), ucf:51400 (fedora)
Note(s): 2016-12-01
M.S.Cp.E.
Engineering and Computer Science, Electrical Engineering and Computer Engineering
Masters
This record was generated from author submitted information.
Subject(s): Energy Efficient -- Low Power -- Reliability -- Process Variation -- post-CMOS devices -- Spin-Transfer Torque storage elements -- STT-MRAM -- Magnetic Tunnel Junction (MTJ) -- Sense Amplifier
Persistent Link to This Record: http://purl.flvc.org/ucf/fd/CFE0006493
Restrictions on Access: public 2016-12-15
Host Institution: UCF

In Collections