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 Title
 AN EVALUATION OF INTEGRATED CURRICULUM AS IT EXISTS IN MATHEMATICS AND SCIENCE SSS AS WELL AS THE SUBSEQUENT SUPPORTIVE PRESENTATION OF THOSE STANDARDS IN EIGHTH GRADE MATHEMATICS AND SCIENCE TEXTBOOKS.
 Creator

Gill, Clara, Dixon, Juli, University of Central Florida
 Abstract / Description

This study attempted to verify points of intersection (POIs) between mathematics and science in the eighth grade Sunshine State Standards (SSS), and to develop a valid and reliable instrument to evaluate these POIs as they were presented in the respective mathematics and science textbooks approved for use in Florida public schools. Shannon and Weaver (1998) delineated a process for content analysis that informed the design of this analysis. The process began with an analysis of the SSS to...
Show moreThis study attempted to verify points of intersection (POIs) between mathematics and science in the eighth grade Sunshine State Standards (SSS), and to develop a valid and reliable instrument to evaluate these POIs as they were presented in the respective mathematics and science textbooks approved for use in Florida public schools. Shannon and Weaver (1998) delineated a process for content analysis that informed the design of this analysis. The process began with an analysis of the SSS to uncover POIs between mathematics and science; considered effective strategies for presenting these points of intersection in the classroom; and examined the textbooks for a mutually supportive presentation of the POIs between the two domains. The criterion for textbook evaluation was synthesized from documents used by the National Research Council (NRC, 2004) and Project 2061 (Roseman, Kulm, Shuttleworth, 2001. These criteria were examined in terms of measureable elements of textbook design, vocabulary, inquiry and problem solving in order to create integrated objectives, which were then operationalized so that each objective could be evaluated using the Textbook Evaluation Document (TED). The validity of the TED was insured by the transparency of the process. Reliability was determined in two steps, first to determine the most reliable segments of the document and finally to confirm the reliability of those segments. It was determined that the vocabulary section of the TED consistently produced reliability scores above 70% with variation of Supportive Curriculum Scores (SCS) between textbooks. This indicated that a measure of supportive vocabulary could be generated for use in future studies for example correlating supportive curriculum with student achievement.
Show less  Date Issued
 2010
 Identifier
 CFE0003010, ucf:48338
 Format
 Document (PDF)
 PURL
 http://purl.flvc.org/ucf/fd/CFE0003010
 Title
 FOSTERING TEACHER'S CONCEPTUAL UNDERSTANDING OF ORDERING, ADDING, AND SUBTRACTING FRACTIONS THROUGH SCHOOLBASED PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT.
 Creator

Maguhn , Jessica, Dixon , Juli, University of Central Florida
 Abstract / Description

In an attempt to examine my practice of providing conceptuallybased professional development on fractions to fifth grade teachers, I conducted a series of four one hour professional development workshops. I focused on the conceptual understanding of ordering, adding, and subtracting fractions. I examined the solution process that teachers used to solve fraction problems and their abilities to explain and justify their solutions in an attempt to interpret their understanding. My data showed...
Show moreIn an attempt to examine my practice of providing conceptuallybased professional development on fractions to fifth grade teachers, I conducted a series of four one hour professional development workshops. I focused on the conceptual understanding of ordering, adding, and subtracting fractions. I examined the solution process that teachers used to solve fraction problems and their abilities to explain and justify their solutions in an attempt to interpret their understanding. My data showed the effects of this workshop series. The study helped determine the effects of conceptuallybased professional development on fractions as demonstrated in the teachers' discussions, participation, and written explanations.
Show less  Date Issued
 2009
 Identifier
 CFE0002608, ucf:48259
 Format
 Document (PDF)
 PURL
 http://purl.flvc.org/ucf/fd/CFE0002608
 Title
 A MULTIPLE CASE STUDY INVESTIGATING THE EFFECTS OF TECHNOLOGY ON STUDENTS' VISUAL AND NONVISUAL THINKING PREFERENCES: COMPARING PAPERPENCIL AND DYNAMIC SOFTWARE BASED STRATEGIES OF ALGEBRA WORD PROBLEMS.
 Creator

Coskun, Sirin, Dixon, Juli, University of Central Florida
 Abstract / Description

In this multiplecase study, I developed cases describing three students' (Mary, Ryan and David) solution methods for algebra word problems and investigated the effect of technology on their solution methods by making inferences about their preferences for visual or nonvisual solutions. Furthermore, I examined the students' solution methods when presented with virtual physical representations of the situations described in the problems and attempted to explain the effect of those...
Show moreIn this multiplecase study, I developed cases describing three students' (Mary, Ryan and David) solution methods for algebra word problems and investigated the effect of technology on their solution methods by making inferences about their preferences for visual or nonvisual solutions. Furthermore, I examined the students' solution methods when presented with virtual physical representations of the situations described in the problems and attempted to explain the effect of those representations on students' thinking preferences. In this study, the use of technology referred to the use of the dynamic software program Geogebra. Suwarsono's (1982) Mathematical Processing Instrument (MPI) was administered to determine their preferences for visual and nonvisual thinking. During the interviews, students were presented with paperandpencilbased tasks (PBTs), Geogebrabased tasks (GBTs) and Geogebrabased tasks with virtual physical representations (GBTVPRs). Each category included 10 algebra word problems, with similar problems across categories. (i.e., PBT 9, GBT 9 and GBTVPR 9 were similar). By investigating students' methods of solution and their use of representations in solving those tasks, I compared and contrasted their preferences for visual and nonvisual methods when solving problems with and without technology. The comparison between their solutions of PBTs and GBTs revealed how dynamic software influenced their method of solution. Regardless of students' preferences for visual and nonvisual solutions, with the use of dynamic software students employed more visual methods when presented with GBTs. When visual methods were as accessible and easy to use as nonvisual methods, students preferred to use them, thus demonstrating that they possessed a more complete knowledge of problemsolving with dynamic software than their work on the PBTs. Nowadays, we can construct virtual physical representations of the problems in technology environments that will help students explore the relationships and look for patterns that can be used to solve the problem. Unlike GBTs, GBTVPRs did not influence students' preferences for visual or nonvisual methods. Students continued to rely on methods that they preferred since their preferences for visual or nonvisual solutions regarding GBTPRs were similar to their solution preferences for the problems on MPI that was administered to them to determine their preferences for visual or nonvisual methods. Mary, whose MPI score suggested that she preferred to solve mathematics problems using nonvisual methods, solved GBTVPRs with nonvisual methods. Ryan, whose MPI score suggested that he preferred to solve mathematics problems using visual methods, solved GBTVPRs with visual methods. David, whose MPI score suggested that he preferred to solve mathematics problems using both visual and nonvisual methods, solved GBTVPRs with both visual and nonvisual methods.
Show less  Date Issued
 2011
 Identifier
 CFE0003900, ucf:48733
 Format
 Document (PDF)
 PURL
 http://purl.flvc.org/ucf/fd/CFE0003900
 Title
 THE INFLUENCE OF VIRTUAL MANIPULATIVES ONSECOND GRADER'S ACQUISITION OF PLACE VALUE CONCEPTS.
 Creator

Jolicoeur, Kay, Dixon, Juli, University of Central Florida
 Abstract / Description

The purpose of this study was to examine my own practice of teaching place value and the influence virtual manipulatives had, in addition to physical manipulatives, on place value understanding of my second grade students. I wanted to see how adding a baseten computer applet might better meet the needs of all learners while also meeting the needs of today's technological classroom. Through this study, I found that both physical and virtual manipulatives helped students acquire place value...
Show moreThe purpose of this study was to examine my own practice of teaching place value and the influence virtual manipulatives had, in addition to physical manipulatives, on place value understanding of my second grade students. I wanted to see how adding a baseten computer applet might better meet the needs of all learners while also meeting the needs of today's technological classroom. Through this study, I found that both physical and virtual manipulatives helped students acquire place value concepts. I found that virtual manipulatives had features that engaged students in a way that increased their mathematical language, increased students' ability to represent more conceptual understanding of composing and decomposing numbers, and express enthusiasm towards mathematics. A pretest and posttest revealed that students' academic performance increased. While research on virtual manipulatives and mathematical achievement is fairly recent, this study offers insight to other classroom teachers and the research community.
Show less  Date Issued
 2011
 Identifier
 CFE0003763, ucf:48799
 Format
 Document (PDF)
 PURL
 http://purl.flvc.org/ucf/fd/CFE0003763
 Title
 The Mathematics Achievement Gap in Virtual Education.
 Creator

Glover, Sara, Martin, Suzanne, Boote, David, Dixon, Juli, Butler, Lorrie, University of Central Florida
 Abstract / Description

This phenomenological study examined the lived experiences of online Algebra I teachers as they relate to the instruction of minority students. There is an academic achievement gap that exists between minority students and their nonminority peers in United States public education (Sousa (&) Armor, 2016). Although national educational policy has sought to narrow the academic achievement gap, it is persistent and must be addressed because public education affects the future of our nation ...
Show moreThis phenomenological study examined the lived experiences of online Algebra I teachers as they relate to the instruction of minority students. There is an academic achievement gap that exists between minority students and their nonminority peers in United States public education (Sousa (&) Armor, 2016). Although national educational policy has sought to narrow the academic achievement gap, it is persistent and must be addressed because public education affects the future of our nation (Fullan (&) Quinn, 2016). Virtual education is a growing platform for learning, with nearly 300,000 students enrolled across the United States. Achievement data demonstrates the existence of an academic achievement gap in this learning environment as well (Miron, Shank, (&) Davidson, 2018). Yet, there is not a great deal of highquality research surrounding aspects of virtual education (Molnar et al., 2017). A phenomenological research method was used to examine the lived experiences of Algebra I teachers in a virtual learning environment. Interviews were conducted with five participants (N = 5). Data analysis resulted in eight overarching themes and twentyseven tertiary themes. The major themes include: (a) teachers believe that student characteristics are a primary determinant of their success in virtual education; (b) teachers believe they have a strong impact upon student success in a virtual learning environment; (c) teachers believe Algebra I is a challenging content area for student achievement; (d) teachers believe family involvement impacts student learning in virtual education; (e) teachers believe frequent and consistent communication is vital in virtual education; (f) teachers believe there are challenges communicating with English language learners; (g) teachers believe strategies can be implemented to support student success in an online learning environment; and (h) teachers believe virtual education is a unique learning environment. This study concludes with an examination of each finding and provides implications for virtual education teachers and policy, and recommendations for future research.
Show less  Date Issued
 2019
 Identifier
 CFE0007461, ucf:52667
 Format
 Document (PDF)
 PURL
 http://purl.flvc.org/ucf/fd/CFE0007461
 Title
 An analysis of the relationships between homework frequency and homework grading procedures of Algebra 1 teachers on student outcomes as measured on the Algebra 1 endofcourse examination.
 Creator

Taylor, Jonathan, Johnson, Jerry, Dixon, Juli, Doherty, Walter, Pisani, Michelle, University of Central Florida
 Abstract / Description

The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship, if any, between homework practices of Algebra 1 teachers and student outcomes as measured by the state of Florida's Algebra 1 End of Course assessment (EOC). Algebra 1 EOC scores were collected from the study district's central office. Data on teacher homework practices was collected through a researchercreated survey. Crosstabulation tables were used to identify variations in homework assignment, homework frequency, homework type,...
Show moreThe purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship, if any, between homework practices of Algebra 1 teachers and student outcomes as measured by the state of Florida's Algebra 1 End of Course assessment (EOC). Algebra 1 EOC scores were collected from the study district's central office. Data on teacher homework practices was collected through a researchercreated survey. Crosstabulation tables were used to identify variations in homework assignment, homework frequency, homework type, and homework grading practice associated with school (middle or high) and teacher (educational attainment and experience teaching Algebra 1) characteristics. A twoway ANOVA was used to analyze the relationship between homework frequency and student achievement and to investigate the influence of teacher characteristics as moderators. The main effect of homework frequency as well as the interaction effects of the teacher's educational attainment and the teacher's educational experience were statistically significant. Results showed that students who were given more homework did better on the Algebra 1 EOC than their peers who received less homework. A second twoway ANOVA was used to analyze the relationship between the way homework is graded and student achievement and to investigate the influence of teacher characteristics as moderators. The main effect of homework grading practice as well as the interaction effect of the teacher's educational experience was statistically significant. Results showed that students had the highest Algebra 1EOC score when their homework was graded for accuracy. While making decisions on how homework should be graded in an Algebra 1 classroom, teachers and administrators will beinformed through these findings as to what type of grading practice has the potential to positively impact student achievement.
Show less  Date Issued
 2019
 Identifier
 CFE0007732, ucf:52415
 Format
 Document (PDF)
 PURL
 http://purl.flvc.org/ucf/fd/CFE0007732
 Title
 Influencing students to become stewards of the Earth's ocean through a residential marine camp experience.
 Creator

Rembert, Jenifer, Dixon, Juli, Andreasen, Janet, Everett, Robert, University of Central Florida
 Abstract / Description

ABSTRACTThe purpose of this action research study was to document 8th grade students' experiences at a residential marine learning facility as they discovered the interconnections between life on Earth and its dependency on ocean health. My goal was for students to take their new knowledge and share it with others in a quest to become educated and caring stewards of the Earth's ocean. Students in this study participated in open peer and instructor discussions, performed full and guided...
Show moreABSTRACTThe purpose of this action research study was to document 8th grade students' experiences at a residential marine learning facility as they discovered the interconnections between life on Earth and its dependency on ocean health. My goal was for students to take their new knowledge and share it with others in a quest to become educated and caring stewards of the Earth's ocean. Students in this study participated in open peer and instructor discussions, performed full and guided inquiry activities, and snorkeled among the shallow water habitats that transition from mangroves toward coral reefs to discover the interconnections among shallow water marine habitats and the critical necessity of biological diversity among habitats.The processes used to collect data for this action research study were a pre/post knowledge assessment about coral reefs, videotaped conversations among peers and instructors, photographs documenting student engagement in activities, and interviews conducted at the conclusion of the trip. The themes that emerged included a mindset of ocean stewardship, deep engagement in inquirydriven activities while interacting among peers, the ability to clearly articulate the effects of human impact on biological diversity and the need to maintain sustainable shallow water ecosystems that are biologically diverse.Although this study was only conducted over a three day weekend, the emergent themes highlight the value of providing students with opportunities to interact with nature. Experiential learning not only contributes to the various ways of knowing but such experiences help students develop a stronger sense of self perception and values as they begin formulating their sense of relationship to and responsibilities toward their own communities and the larger, natural world.
Show less  Date Issued
 2012
 Identifier
 CFE0004588, ucf:49198
 Format
 Document (PDF)
 PURL
 http://purl.flvc.org/ucf/fd/CFE0004588
 Title
 Influence of using context supportive of the area model on sixth grade students' performance when writing word problems for fraction subtraction and multiplication.
 Creator

Friske, Monica, Dixon, Juli, Andreasen, Janet, Ortiz, Enrique, University of Central Florida
 Abstract / Description

The purpose of this action research study was to evaluate my own practice of teaching writing word problems with fraction subtraction and fraction multiplication using appropriate context. I wanted to see how focusing my instruction on the use of the area model and manipulatives could develop students' understanding of fractions when writing word problems. I chose this topic because Florida has adopted the Common Core State Standards and will be implementing them in the coming years. These...
Show moreThe purpose of this action research study was to evaluate my own practice of teaching writing word problems with fraction subtraction and fraction multiplication using appropriate context. I wanted to see how focusing my instruction on the use of the area model and manipulatives could develop students' understanding of fractions when writing word problems. I chose this topic because Florida has adopted the Common Core State Standards and will be implementing them in the coming years. These standards encourage the development of deeper understanding of mathematics, including fractions. I hoped this research would give my students the opportunity to make sense of fraction subtraction and fraction multiplication word problems on a deeper level, while giving me insight into my own practice in teaching context within word problems. Through this study, I learned that my students continued to switch the context of subtraction with multiplication within word problems. Students did make clear gains in their writing of fraction subtraction and fraction multiplication word problems. Although there is a limited amount of research on students mixing their context within fraction word problems, this study offers additional insight into a teacher's practice with writing fraction word problems.
Show less  Date Issued
 2011
 Identifier
 CFE0004111, ucf:49112
 Format
 Document (PDF)
 PURL
 http://purl.flvc.org/ucf/fd/CFE0004111
 Title
 The Impact of using a Computer Algebra System in High School Calculus on High Performing Students' Conceptual and Procedural Understanding.
 Creator

Bawatneh, Zyad, Haciomeroglu, Erhan, Dixon, Juli, Ortiz, Enrique, Saleh, Suha, University of Central Florida
 Abstract / Description

Recently, there has been an increasing interest in high school mathematics education, especially in the teaching and learning of calculus. For example, studies conducted by Bressoud (2010); Judson and Nishimori (2005); Koh and Divaharan (2011); and St. Jarre (2008) all looked at how to improve the understanding of calculus students and what roles the educator must take to ensure that their students are successful. The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a significant...
Show moreRecently, there has been an increasing interest in high school mathematics education, especially in the teaching and learning of calculus. For example, studies conducted by Bressoud (2010); Judson and Nishimori (2005); Koh and Divaharan (2011); and St. Jarre (2008) all looked at how to improve the understanding of calculus students and what roles the educator must take to ensure that their students are successful. The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a significant difference between instruction using computer algebra system (CAS) compared to instruction using the graphing calculator in high school calculus on students' conceptual and procedural understanding. This study explored and compared two different types of instruction based on the use of two different types of technology, CAS and graphing calculator. The total population for this study consisted of 333 students. There were 187 students classified as using the graphing calculator and 146 students classified as using CAS. The data for this study were collected from four Advanced Placement (AP) calculus AB courses from high schools in Florida. The study used observations and two sets of calculus tasks in order to gather data. The research questions for this study looked at comparing the grades of students categorized based on the type of instruction received during the learning of calculus. The statistical procedure that was used was a simple oneway analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results indicated that there was no significant difference between the two types of instruction on the students' procedural knowledge, however, there was statistical significance on the students' conceptual understanding in favor of the CAS students. The study introduces a framework on how to obtain information about the effects of different types of instruction on students' understanding of calculus. The results of this study contribute in assisting teachers and future researchers on how to analyze student work in order to obtain information about the students' conceptual and procedural understanding of first semester calculus.
Show less  Date Issued
 2012
 Identifier
 CFE0004514, ucf:49278
 Format
 Document (PDF)
 PURL
 http://purl.flvc.org/ucf/fd/CFE0004514
 Title
 Formative Assessment: Benefit For All.
 Creator

Wallace, William, Dixon, Juli, Dieker, Lisa, Andreasen, Janet, University of Central Florida
 Abstract / Description

This study investigated how formative assessment implemented in a fifth grade mathematics classroom with a student response system and a student selfevaluative tool affected student selfassessment. Data were collected through individual student and focus group interviews, selfassessment sheets, and teacher reflections.Formative assessment is a low stakes classroom assessment that is an assessment for learning. This study used a student response system to convey feedback from the formative...
Show moreThis study investigated how formative assessment implemented in a fifth grade mathematics classroom with a student response system and a student selfevaluative tool affected student selfassessment. Data were collected through individual student and focus group interviews, selfassessment sheets, and teacher reflections.Formative assessment is a low stakes classroom assessment that is an assessment for learning. This study used a student response system to convey feedback from the formative assessment to both students and teacher during instruction. The student selfassessment sheet was implemented to provide a more dynamic level of feedback for students than what could be provided through the student response system alone.
Show less  Date Issued
 2013
 Identifier
 CFE0004955, ucf:49584
 Format
 Document (PDF)
 PURL
 http://purl.flvc.org/ucf/fd/CFE0004955
 Title
 The Influence of Choice in Manipulatives on Second Grade Students' Attitudes, Achievement, and Explanations of TwoDigit Addition Concepts.
 Creator

Siegel, Aryn, Andreasen, Janet, Dieker, Lisa, Dixon, Juli, University of Central Florida
 Abstract / Description

The purpose of this study was to improve my teaching practice, as well as my second grade students' success with twodigit addition concepts, by allowing them to choose the manipulative tools to explore problems and justify solutions. I examined how allowing my students this choice influenced their attitudes, achievement, and explanations of their thought processes. I found that allowing students to choose their own manipulatives had positive influences in all three areas. Pre and posttest...
Show moreThe purpose of this study was to improve my teaching practice, as well as my second grade students' success with twodigit addition concepts, by allowing them to choose the manipulative tools to explore problems and justify solutions. I examined how allowing my students this choice influenced their attitudes, achievement, and explanations of their thought processes. I found that allowing students to choose their own manipulatives had positive influences in all three areas. Pre and posttest results showed an overall shift toward more positive mathematics attitudes, as well as increased academic achievement with twodigit addition concepts. Students also demonstrated changes in the ways they used the manipulatives, as well as how they explained their solutions to twodigit addition problems.
Show less  Date Issued
 2012
 Identifier
 CFE0004267, ucf:49540
 Format
 Document (PDF)
 PURL
 http://purl.flvc.org/ucf/fd/CFE0004267
 Title
 An Analysis of Undergraduate Elementary School PreService Teachers' Ability to Contextualize Fraction Expressions and Decontextualize Fraction Word Problems.
 Creator

Tapp, Laura, Ortiz, Enrique, Andreasen, Janet, Dixon, Juli, Witta, Eleanor, University of Central Florida
 Abstract / Description

The focus of this research was to expand on existing literature by providing information on elementary school preservice teachers' ability to contextualize fraction expressions and decontextualize fraction word problems. The elementary school preservice teachers who participated in this study were enrolled in a mathematics for elementary school teachers content course in a college of education at a large university during the Spring 2016 semester. In this mixedmethod study, the...
Show moreThe focus of this research was to expand on existing literature by providing information on elementary school preservice teachers' ability to contextualize fraction expressions and decontextualize fraction word problems. The elementary school preservice teachers who participated in this study were enrolled in a mathematics for elementary school teachers content course in a college of education at a large university during the Spring 2016 semester. In this mixedmethod study, the participants were given the Contextualization and Decontextualization of Fractions Instrument (CDFI) which assessed elementary school preservice teachers' ability to solve fraction word problems and identify decontextualized fraction word problems into expressions and contextualized fraction expressions into word problems. The elementary school preservice teachers were given the CDFI before and after they completed a unit on fractions. Of the 52 participants who completed both the pre and post CDFI, 11 were selected to participant in think aloud interviews in which they decontextualized fraction expressions from word problems and solved and contextualized fraction word problems from expressions. Quantitative results showed an overall statistically significant difference in the elementary school preservice teachers' pre and post test scores. With the exception of two questions, all questions on the CDFI showed a statistically significant difference between the pre and the post test scores. No statistical significance was found in the responses to the question that required the elementary school preservice teachers to identify the expression that matched the given fraction subtraction word problem. A large number of participants correctly identified the correct subtraction expression on the pretest, and only slightly more of them were able to identify the correct subtraction expression on the posttest. No statistical significance was found in the responses to the question that required the elementary school preservice teachers to explain their selection of a contextualized fraction multiplication expression. Though there was an increase in the elementary school preservice teachers' ability to explain their selection of the contextualized fraction multiplication expression, it was not statistically significant. The qualitative analysis of the think aloud interview data showed that some of the elementary school preservice teachers struggled with contextualizing fraction expressions. Most of the elementary school preservice teachers did not struggle with solving the fraction word problems, but did struggle with decontextualizing fraction multiplication word problems.
Show less  Date Issued
 2016
 Identifier
 CFE0006506, ucf:51405
 Format
 Document (PDF)
 PURL
 http://purl.flvc.org/ucf/fd/CFE0006506
 Title
 A Multiple Case Study Examining How ThirdGrade Students Who Struggle in Mathematics Make Sense of Fraction Concepts.
 Creator

Gault, Rebecca, Ortiz, Enrique, Dixon, Juli, Nickels, Megan, Little, Mary, University of Central Florida
 Abstract / Description

A qualitative multiple case study was conducted to reveal the sensemaking processes thirdgrade students who struggle in mathematics used to build an understanding of fraction concepts. Purposive sampling identified three participants who were struggling in a local school's third grade mathematics classes. This research describes how these participants made sense of fraction concepts through their strengths and struggles while engaged in 15 smallgroup intervention sessions. Vygotsky's (1934...
Show moreA qualitative multiple case study was conducted to reveal the sensemaking processes thirdgrade students who struggle in mathematics used to build an understanding of fraction concepts. Purposive sampling identified three participants who were struggling in a local school's third grade mathematics classes. This research describes how these participants made sense of fraction concepts through their strengths and struggles while engaged in 15 smallgroup intervention sessions. Vygotsky's (1934/1986/2012) theory that children's optimal learning is supported by teacherstudent interactions was used as an interpretive framework. Tasks were developed over the course of the intervention sessions with consideration of a model developed by Lesh, Post, and Behr (1987) for connecting mathematical representations and the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (National Governors Association Center for Best Practices (&) Council of Chief State School Officers, 2010). Data, including transcripts, tapes, and artifacts, were analyzed using two frameworks. These were Geary's (2003) classification of three subtypes of learning disabilities in mathematics and Anghileri's (2006) descriptions of socialconstructivist scaffolding techniques. The first analysis resulted in a description of each participant's strengths and struggles, including alignment with Geary's subtypes, and how these strengths and struggles interacted with participant's construction of knowledge about fractions. The second analysis described episodes of learning that were supported by socialconstructivist scaffolding techniques and revealed how participants made sense of fractions through their interactions with each other, the researcher, and intervention tasks. The researcher found that each participant's learning process, including struggles, was unique, with each interacting in different ways with tasks, manipulatives, pictorial representations, and questioning. For each participant, however, scaffolding techniques oriented around prompting and probing questions, participant verbalizations, and interactions with connected fraction representations were critical in their learning process.
Show less  Date Issued
 2016
 Identifier
 CFE0006307, ucf:51587
 Format
 Document (PDF)
 PURL
 http://purl.flvc.org/ucf/fd/CFE0006307
 Title
 Talking Back: Mathematics Teachers Supporting Students' Engagement in a Common Core Standard for Mathematical Practice: A Case Study.
 Creator

Sotillo Turner, Mercedes, Dixon, Juli, Ortiz, Enrique, Gresham, Gina, Dieker, Lisa, University of Central Florida
 Abstract / Description

The researcher in this case study sought to determine the ways in which teachers support their students to create viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others (SMP3). In order to achieve this goal, the selfconceived classroom roles of two teachers, one experienced and one novice, were elicited and then compared to their actualized roles observed in the classroom. Both teachers were provided with professional development focused on supporting student engagement in SMP3. This...
Show moreThe researcher in this case study sought to determine the ways in which teachers support their students to create viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others (SMP3). In order to achieve this goal, the selfconceived classroom roles of two teachers, one experienced and one novice, were elicited and then compared to their actualized roles observed in the classroom. Both teachers were provided with professional development focused on supporting student engagement in SMP3. This professional development was informed by the guidelines that describe the behaviors students should exhibit as they are engaged in the standards for mathematical practice contained in the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics. The teachers were observed, video recorded, and interviewed during and immediately after the professional development. A final observation was performed four weeks after the PD. The marked differences in the teachers' characteristics depicted in each case added to the robustness of the results of the study. A crosscase analysis was performed in order to gauge how the novice and experienced teachers' roles compared and contrasted with each other. The comparison of the teachers' selfperception and their actual roles in the classroom indicated that they were not supporting their students as they thought they were. The analysis yielded specific ways in which novice and experienced teachers might support their students. Furthermore, the crosscase analysis established the support that teachers are able to provide to students depends on (a) teaching experience, (b) teacher content and pedagogical knowledge, (c) questioning, (d) awareness of communication, (e) teacher expectations, and (f) classroom management. Study results provide implications regarding the kinds of support teachers might need given their teaching experience and mathematics content knowledge as they attempt to motivate their students to engage in SMP3.
Show less  Date Issued
 2014
 Identifier
 CFE0005553, ucf:50275
 Format
 Document (PDF)
 PURL
 http://purl.flvc.org/ucf/fd/CFE0005553
 Title
 A Comparison of Students' and Parents' Mathematics Attitudes and Achievement At A Private Historically Black University.
 Creator

Childs, Kristopher, Dixon, Juli, Hynes, Mike, Haciomeroglu, Erhan, Swan, Bonnie, University of Central Florida
 Abstract / Description

The focus of this research was to compare students' and their parents' mathematical attitudes using the Attitudes Towards Mathematics Instrument (ATMI). The sample consisted of 476 newlyenrolled students and 263 parents attending the New Student Orientation and Leadership program at a private historically black university. The sample was predominantly African American, with 96% of the students and 95% of the parents identifying themselves as African American. The ATMI total score and...
Show moreThe focus of this research was to compare students' and their parents' mathematical attitudes using the Attitudes Towards Mathematics Instrument (ATMI). The sample consisted of 476 newlyenrolled students and 263 parents attending the New Student Orientation and Leadership program at a private historically black university. The sample was predominantly African American, with 96% of the students and 95% of the parents identifying themselves as African American. The ATMI total score and subscale scores of selfconfidence, value, enjoyment, and motivation were explored to determine if there was a relationship between the mathematics attitudes of students enrolled at a private historically black university and their parents'. Analysis was conducted to determine if there was a relationship between the students' mathematics academic achievement as demonstrated on the ACT/SAT by the mathematics subset score and their mathematics attitude. Additional analysis was conducted to determine if there was a relationship between students' mathematics academic achievement as demonstrated on the ACT/SAT by the mathematics subset score and their parents' mathematics attitude. The researcher found a statistically significant relationship between mathematics attitudes of students and their mothers as measured by the ATMI total score and subscales: selfconfidence, value, enjoyment, and motivation. The researcher found a statistically significant relationship between mathematics attitudes of students and their fathers as measured by the ATMI motivation subscale. No statistically significant relationship was found between students' mathematics academic achievement as demonstrated on the ACT/SAT by the mathematics subset score and their parents' mathematics attitude total score or the subscale scores. A statistically significant relationship between students' academic achievement and their attitudes towards mathematics total score and subscale scores: selfconfidence, value, enjoyment, and motivation was found in this research. The findings of this study provide a line of research to further explore mathematics attitudes and its relationship to African American student achievement.
Show less  Date Issued
 2013
 Identifier
 CFE0005316, ucf:50514
 Format
 Document (PDF)
 PURL
 http://purl.flvc.org/ucf/fd/CFE0005316
 Title
 Replacing the "Raise Your Hand to Speak" Rule with New Social and Sociomathematical Norms in an Elementary Mathematics Classroom.
 Creator

Brooks, Lisa, Dixon, Juli, Andreasen, Janet, Ortiz, Enrique, University of Central Florida
 Abstract / Description

This qualitative study documents the establishment of new social and sociomathematical norms in a second grade classroom. The teacher allowed students to speak directly to one another without having to raise their hands first during whole group mathematics instruction. Reform efforts in mathematics and the standards for mathematical practice contained in the Common Core State Standards call for students to discuss their reasoning with each other. Data were collected through interviews with...
Show moreThis qualitative study documents the establishment of new social and sociomathematical norms in a second grade classroom. The teacher allowed students to speak directly to one another without having to raise their hands first during whole group mathematics instruction. Reform efforts in mathematics and the standards for mathematical practice contained in the Common Core State Standards call for students to discuss their reasoning with each other. Data were collected through interviews with the teacher and students, field notes, and videorecorded lessons over the course of 23 days. An online survey tool was utilized to share selected video of the teacher's instruction. Initial professional development topics were chosen from research in mathematics education related to the social construction of understanding. Ongoing professional development was responsive to what occurred during instruction. The literature suggests that teachers often utilize traditional teaching methods and struggle to deviate from established patterns regardless of their desire to implement change. The teacher in this study learned that allowing students to talk openly provided him with insight into their mathematical conceptions and misconceptions. The students initially viewed mathematics as a set of rules to follow and exhibited the role of passive recipients of information. This changed as students were provided opportunities to participate in discussions and in doing so developed a new understanding of their role during mathematics lessons. Mathematical errors became a catalyst for communication and were viewed by students as opportunities for assisting their peers.
Show less  Date Issued
 2014
 Identifier
 CFE0005308, ucf:50517
 Format
 Document (PDF)
 PURL
 http://purl.flvc.org/ucf/fd/CFE0005308
 Title
 Investigating the relationships between preferences, gender, and high school students' geometry performance.
 Creator

Mainali, Bhesh, Haciomeroglu, Erhan, Dixon, Juli, Andreasen, Janet, Bai, Haiyan, University of Central Florida
 Abstract / Description

In this quantitative study, the relationships between high school students' preference for solution methods, geometry performance, task difficulty, and gender were investigated. The data was collected from 161 high school students from six different schools at a county located in central Florida in the United States. The study was conducted during the 2013()2014 school year. The participants represented a wide range in socioeconomic status, were from a range of grades (1012), and were...
Show moreIn this quantitative study, the relationships between high school students' preference for solution methods, geometry performance, task difficulty, and gender were investigated. The data was collected from 161 high school students from six different schools at a county located in central Florida in the United States. The study was conducted during the 2013()2014 school year. The participants represented a wide range in socioeconomic status, were from a range of grades (1012), and were enrolled in different mathematics courses (Algebra 2, Geometry, Financial Algebra, and Precalculus). Data were collected primarily with the aid of a geometry test and a geometry questionnaire. Using a thinkaloud protocol, a short interview was also conducted with some students.For the purpose of statistical analysis, students' preferences for solution methods were quantified into numeric values, and then a visuality score was obtained for each student. Students' visuality scores ranged from 12 to +12. The visuality scores were used to assess students' preference for solution methods. A standardized test score was used to measure students' geometry performance. The data analysis indicated that the majority of students were visualizers. The statistical analysis revealed that there was not an association between preference for solution methods and students' geometry performance. The preference for solving geometry problems using either visual or nonvisual methods was not influenced by task difficulty. Students were equally likely to employ visual as well as nonvisual solution methods regardless of the task difficulty. Gender was significant in geometry performance but not in preference for solution methods. Female students' geometry performance was significantly higher than male students' geometry performance. The findings of this study suggested that instruction should be focused on incorporating both visual and nonvisual teaching strategies in mathematics lesson activities in order to develop preference for both visual and nonvisual solution methods.
Show less  Date Issued
 2014
 Identifier
 CFE0005374, ucf:50448
 Format
 Document (PDF)
 PURL
 http://purl.flvc.org/ucf/fd/CFE0005374
 Title
 The conceptual field of proportional reasoning researched through the lived experiences of nurses.
 Creator

Deichert, Deana, Dixon, Juli, Haciomeroglu, Erhan, Andreasen, Janet, Hunt, Debra, University of Central Florida
 Abstract / Description

Proportional reasoning instruction is prevalent in elementary, secondary, and postsecondary schooling. The concept of proportional reasoning is used in a variety of contexts for solving realworld problems. One of these contexts is the solving of dosage calculation proportional problems in the healthcare field. On the job, nurses perform drug dosage calculations which carry fatal consequences. As a result, nursing students are required to meet minimum competencies in solving proportion...
Show moreProportional reasoning instruction is prevalent in elementary, secondary, and postsecondary schooling. The concept of proportional reasoning is used in a variety of contexts for solving realworld problems. One of these contexts is the solving of dosage calculation proportional problems in the healthcare field. On the job, nurses perform drug dosage calculations which carry fatal consequences. As a result, nursing students are required to meet minimum competencies in solving proportion problems. The goal of this research is to describe the lived experiences of nurses in connection to their use of proportional reasoning in order to impact instruction of the procedures used to solve these problems. The research begins by clarifying and defining the conceptual field of proportional reasoning. Utilizing Vergnaud's theory of conceptual fields and synthesizing the differing organizational frameworks used in the literature on proportional reasoning, the concept is organized and explicated into three components: concepts, procedures, and situations. Through the lens of this organizational structure, data from 44 registered nurses who completed a dosage calculation proportion survey were analyzed and connected to the framework of the conceptual field of proportional reasoning. Four nurses were chosen as a focus of indepth study based upon their procedural strategies and ability to vividly describe their experiences. These qualitative results are synthesized to describe the lived experiences of nurses related to their education and use of proportional reasoning.Procedural strategies that are supported by textbooks, instruction, and practice are developed and defined. Descriptive statistics show the distribution of procedures used by nurses on a five question dosage calculation survey. The most common procedures used are the nursing formula, cross products, and dimensional analysis. These procedures correspond to the predominate procedures found in nursing dosage calculation texts. Instructional implications focus on the transition between elementary and secondary multiplicative structures, the confusion between equality and proportionality, and the difficulty that like quantities present in dealing with proportions.
Show less  Date Issued
 2014
 Identifier
 CFE0005781, ucf:50058
 Format
 Document (PDF)
 PURL
 http://purl.flvc.org/ucf/fd/CFE0005781
 Title
 Effects of a Mathematics Graphic Organizer and Virtual Video Modeling on the Word Problem Solving Abilities of Students with Disabilities.
 Creator

Delisio, Lauren, Dieker, Lisa, Vasquez, Eleazar, Hines, Rebecca, Dixon, Juli, University of Central Florida
 Abstract / Description

Over the last decade, the inclusion of students with disabilities (SWD) in the general education classroom has increased. Currently, 60% of SWD spend 80% or more of their school day in the general education classroom (U.S. Department of Education, 2013). This includes students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), a developmental disability characterized by impairments in behavior, language, and social skills (American Psychological Association, 2013). Many of these SWD struggle with...
Show moreOver the last decade, the inclusion of students with disabilities (SWD) in the general education classroom has increased. Currently, 60% of SWD spend 80% or more of their school day in the general education classroom (U.S. Department of Education, 2013). This includes students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), a developmental disability characterized by impairments in behavior, language, and social skills (American Psychological Association, 2013). Many of these SWD struggle with mathematics in the elementary grades; fewer than 20% of SWD are proficient in mathematics when they begin middle school, compared to 45% of their peers without disabilities. Furthermore, 83% of SWD are performing at the basic or below basic level in mathematics in the fourth grade (U.S. Department of Education, 2013). As the rate of ASD continues to increase (Centers for Disease Control, 2013), the number of students with this disability who are included in the general education classroom also continues to rise. These SWD and students with ASD are expected to meet the same rigorous mathematics standards as their peers without disabilities. This study was an attempt to address the unique needs of SWD and students with ASD by combining practices rooted in the literature, strategy instruction and video modeling.The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of an intervention on the ability of students with and without disabilities in inclusive fourth and fifth grade classrooms to solve word problems in mathematics. The intervention package was comprised of a graphic organizer, the KNWS, video models of the researcher teaching the strategy to a student avatar from a virtual simulated classroom, TeachLivE, and daily word problems for students to practice the strategy. The researcher used a quasiexperimental group design with a treatment and a control group to determine the impact of the intervention. Students were assessed on their performance via a pretest and posttest. Analyses of data were conducted on individual test items to assess patterns in performance by mathematical word problem type.The effects of the intervention on SWD, students with ASD, and students without disabilities varied widely between groups as well as amongst individual students, indicating a need for further studies on the effects of mathematics strategy instruction on students with varying needs and abilities.
Show less  Date Issued
 2015
 Identifier
 CFE0005782, ucf:50065
 Format
 Document (PDF)
 PURL
 http://purl.flvc.org/ucf/fd/CFE0005782
 Title
 A Case Study Exploring the Relationship between Culturally Responsive Teaching and a Mathematical Practice of the Common Core State Standards.
 Creator

Howse, Tashana, Dixon, Juli, Haciomeroglu, Erhan, Andreasen, Janet, Adams, Thomasenia, University of Central Florida
 Abstract / Description

This collective case study explores the nature of the relationship between teachers' use of culturally responsive teaching (CRT) practices and students' engagement in constructing viable arguments and critiquing the reasoning of others (SMP3). This study was informed by the Common Core State Standards Initiative related to developing mathematically proficient students through the use of student engagement practices consistent with the standards for mathematical practice. As a means to support...
Show moreThis collective case study explores the nature of the relationship between teachers' use of culturally responsive teaching (CRT) practices and students' engagement in constructing viable arguments and critiquing the reasoning of others (SMP3). This study was informed by the Common Core State Standards Initiative related to developing mathematically proficient students through the use of student engagement practices consistent with the standards for mathematical practice. As a means to support teachers' facilitating specific student engagement practices, professional development was provided. This study is situated in the growing body of research associated with student engagement and cultural identity. The case of two teachers was defined from interviews, classroom observations, journal prompts, and student artifacts. Data was collected before, during, and after professional development following a crosscase analysis. Four themes emerged: (a) shift in teacher practice; (b) depth and breadth of the knowledge of culturally responsive teaching and standard for mathematical practice three; (c) teacher reflection and reception; and (d) classroom management. The findings suggest that the shift in teacher practice can be supported by professional development focused on reflective practice. This shift is impacted by classroom management and teachers' depth and breadth of their knowledge of CRT and SMP3.
Show less  Date Issued
 2013
 Identifier
 CFE0005005, ucf:50009
 Format
 Document (PDF)
 PURL
 http://purl.flvc.org/ucf/fd/CFE0005005