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 Title
 EFFECTS OF A MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM RICH IN SPATIAL REASONING ACTIVITIES ON FIFTH GRADE STUDENTS' ABILITIES TO SPATIALLY REASON: AN ACTION RESEARCH PROJECT.
 Creator

Varn, Theresa, Dixon, Juli, University of Central Florida
 Abstract / Description

ABSTRACT The purpose of this study is to describe the effect of a curriculum rich in spatial reasoning activities and experiences on the ability of my fifth grade students to spatially reason. The study was conducted to examine 1) the effects of my practice of incorporating spatial reasoning lessons and activities in my fifthgrade mathematics classroom on the students' ability to spatially reason and 2) the effects of my practice of incorporating spatial reasoning lessons and activities on...
Show moreABSTRACT The purpose of this study is to describe the effect of a curriculum rich in spatial reasoning activities and experiences on the ability of my fifth grade students to spatially reason. The study was conducted to examine 1) the effects of my practice of incorporating spatial reasoning lessons and activities in my fifthgrade mathematics classroom on the students' ability to spatially reason and 2) the effects of my practice of incorporating spatial reasoning lessons and activities on my students' ability to problem solve. Data were collected over a tenweek period through the use of student interviews, anecdotal records, photos of student work, student journals, pre and posttests and a poststudy survey. In this study, students demonstrated a statistically significant increase on all pre and posttests. The student interviews, anecdotal records, photos of student work, and student journals all revealed spatial reasoning was used in mathematics problem solving. The study suggests that spatial reasoning can be taught and spatial reasoning skills can be used in problem solving.
Show less  Date Issued
 2005
 Identifier
 CFE0000351, ucf:46295
 Format
 Document (PDF)
 PURL
 http://purl.flvc.org/ucf/fd/CFE0000351
 Title
 THE EFFECTS OF JOURNAL WRITING ON STUDENT ATTITUDES AND PERFORMANCE IN PROBLEM SOLVING.
 Creator

Quinones, Christine, Dixon, Juli, University of Central Florida
 Abstract / Description

This study summarizes research conducted in a second grade classroom at a rural elementary school in the fall of 2004. This study investigated the practice of using writing activities in mathematics to improve student attitudes and performance in problem solving. The classroom teacher supplemented traditional mathematics instruction with daily problem solving activities and affective journal writing. Students were asked to complete daily problem solving prompts and write about their problem...
Show moreThis study summarizes research conducted in a second grade classroom at a rural elementary school in the fall of 2004. This study investigated the practice of using writing activities in mathematics to improve student attitudes and performance in problem solving. The classroom teacher supplemented traditional mathematics instruction with daily problem solving activities and affective journal writing. Students were asked to complete daily problem solving prompts and write about their problemsolving solutions. Attitude data was collected using a pre and post attitude survey as well as affective journal writing assignments. Performance data was collected using a performance based problemsolving rubric. Results of this study showed change in students' attitudes towards problem solving in the areas of willingness to participate and perseverance in completing problem solving tasks. Student performance gains were recorded and analyzed throughout the sixweek study period. Thirteen out of the 17 students who participated in this study showed performance growth in problem solving.
Show less  Date Issued
 2005
 Identifier
 CFE0000429, ucf:46391
 Format
 Document (PDF)
 PURL
 http://purl.flvc.org/ucf/fd/CFE0000429
 Title
 THE EFFECTS OF LITERATURE ON STUDENT MOTIVATION AND CONNECTIONS IN MATHEMATICS.
 Creator

Washington, Arnita, Dixon, Juli, University of Central Florida
 Abstract / Description

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of literature use in the middle grades mathematics curriculum on student motivation and connections. This study involved collecting several types of data regarding students' attitudes, motivation, and their abilities to make realworld connections. Findings from pre and post attitude surveys indicated that literature use in the mathematics curriculum has no effect on students' attitudes towards mathematics. Furthermore, findings from...
Show moreThe purpose of this study was to determine the effects of literature use in the middle grades mathematics curriculum on student motivation and connections. This study involved collecting several types of data regarding students' attitudes, motivation, and their abilities to make realworld connections. Findings from pre and post attitude surveys indicated that literature use in the mathematics curriculum has no effect on students' attitudes towards mathematics. Furthermore, findings from journal entries, students' work, and interview responses indicate that although students find storybooks fun and interesting, their use does not seem to lead to increases in students' understanding of mathematics. However, findings from journal entries, students' work and interview responses indicated that students were better able to make realworld connections through storybooks that were meaningful to their lives. Suggestions for future research should include comparative studies on the effects of literature on student performance in middle grades mathematics.
Show less  Date Issued
 2005
 Identifier
 CFE0000390, ucf:46334
 Format
 Document (PDF)
 PURL
 http://purl.flvc.org/ucf/fd/CFE0000390
 Title
 THE EFFECTS OF LITERATURE ON STUDENT MOTIVATION AND CONNECTIONS IN MATHEMATHICS.
 Creator

Washington, Arnita, Dixon, Juli, University of Central Florida
 Abstract / Description

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of literature use in the middle grades mathematics curriculum on student motivation and connections. This study involved collecting several types of data regarding students' attitudes, motivation, and their abilities to make realworld connections. Findings from pre and post attitude surveys indicated that literature use in the mathematics curriculum has no effect on students' attitudes towards mathematics. Furthermore, findings from...
Show moreThe purpose of this study was to determine the effects of literature use in the middle grades mathematics curriculum on student motivation and connections. This study involved collecting several types of data regarding students' attitudes, motivation, and their abilities to make realworld connections. Findings from pre and post attitude surveys indicated that literature use in the mathematics curriculum has no effect on students' attitudes towards mathematics. Furthermore, findings from journal entries, students' work, and interview responses indicate that although students find storybooks fun and interesting, their use does not seem to lead to increases in students' understanding of mathematics. However, findings from journal entries, students' work and interview responses indicated that students were better able to make realworld connections through storybooks that were meaningful to their lives. Suggestions for future research should include comparative studies on the effects of literature on student performance in middle grades mathematics.
Show less  Date Issued
 2005
 Identifier
 CFE0000382, ucf:46327
 Format
 Document (PDF)
 PURL
 http://purl.flvc.org/ucf/fd/CFE0000382
 Title
 DEVELOPING MATHEMATICAL PRACTICES IN A SOCIAL CONTEXT:AN INSTRUCTIONAL SEQUENCE TO SUPPORT PROSPECTIVE ELEMENTARY TEACHERS' LEARNING OF FRACTIONS.
 Creator

Wheeldon, Debra, Dixon, Juli, University of Central Florida
 Abstract / Description

This teaching experiment used designbased research (DBR) to document the norms and practices that were established with respect to fractions in a mathematics content course for prospective elementary teachers. The teaching experiment resulted in an instructional theory for teaching fractions to prospective elementary teachers. The focus was on the social perspective, using an emergent framework which coordinates social and individual perspectives of development. Social norms,...
Show moreThis teaching experiment used designbased research (DBR) to document the norms and practices that were established with respect to fractions in a mathematics content course for prospective elementary teachers. The teaching experiment resulted in an instructional theory for teaching fractions to prospective elementary teachers. The focus was on the social perspective, using an emergent framework which coordinates social and individual perspectives of development. Social norms, sociomathematical norms, and classroom mathematical practices were considered. A hypothetical learning trajectory (HLT) including learning goals, instructional tasks, tools and imagery, and possible discourse, was conjectured and implemented in the mathematics class. Video tapes of the class sessions were analyzed for established norms and practices. Resulting social norms were that students would: (a) explain and justify solutions, (b) listen to and try to make sense of other students' thinking, and (c) ask questions or ask for clarification when something is not understood. Three sociomathematical norms were established. These were expectations that students would: (a) know what makes an explanation acceptable, (b) know what counts as a different solution, and (c) use meaningful solution strategies instead of known algorithms. Two classroom mathematical practices with respect to fractions were established. The first was partitioning and unitizing fractional amounts. This included (a) modeling fractions with equal parts, (b) defining the whole, (c) using the relationship of the number of pieces and the size of the pieces, and (d) describing the remainder in a division problem. The second practice was quantifying fractions and using relationships among these quantities. This included: (a) naming and modeling fractions, (b) modeling equivalent values, and (c) using relationships to describe fractions. Finally, recommendations for revising the HLT for a future teaching experiment were made. This will contribute toward the continuing development of an instructional theory for teaching fraction concepts and operations to prospective elementary teachers.
Show less  Date Issued
 2008
 Identifier
 CFE0002171, ucf:47526
 Format
 Document (PDF)
 PURL
 http://purl.flvc.org/ucf/fd/CFE0002171
 Title
 THE INFLUENCE OF DISCOURSE AND JOURNAL WRITING ON SECOND GRADERS' ACQUISITION OF MULTIDIGIT ADDITION CONCEPTS.
 Creator

Hensley, Elizabeth, Dixon, Juli, University of Central Florida
 Abstract / Description

The purpose of this study was to examine how second graders use writing and language when they are learning to add multidigit numbers in mathematics class. Second grade students were taught addition conceptually with a focus on sharing their strategies and thought processes with each other during the mathematics lesson. Two social norms were established with students so that sharing information and asking for clarity when they did not understand would be natural and expected. Students kept a...
Show moreThe purpose of this study was to examine how second graders use writing and language when they are learning to add multidigit numbers in mathematics class. Second grade students were taught addition conceptually with a focus on sharing their strategies and thought processes with each other during the mathematics lesson. Two social norms were established with students so that sharing information and asking for clarity when they did not understand would be natural and expected. Students kept a daily mathematics journal to answer the class's Problems of the Day. Patterns found in student journals indicated three stages of multidigit learning. In Stage One, students used little or no words to explain their solution, illustrations show students using counting by ones strategies. Stage Two represents students using appropriate mathematics strategies and vocabulary to explain their solutions in detail. Lastly, Stage Three consists of students solving multidigit problems with little or no word explaining their solution process and illustrations are few. Results of the study indicated that students' oral explanations of solutions to addition problems included more detail compared to students' written justification of similar problems.
Show less  Date Issued
 2007
 Identifier
 CFE0001670, ucf:47218
 Format
 Document (PDF)
 PURL
 http://purl.flvc.org/ucf/fd/CFE0001670
 Title
 EXAMINING SOCIOMATHEMATICAL NORMS WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF DECIMALS AND FRACTIONS IN A SIXTH GRADE CLASSROOM.
 Creator

Nardelli, Marino, Dixon, Juli, University of Central Florida
 Abstract / Description

Social norms are patterns of behavior expected within a particular society in a given situation. Social norms can be shared belief of what is normal and acceptable shapes and enforces the actions of people in a society. In the educational classroom, they are characteristics that constitute the classroom participation structure. Sociomathematical norms are finegrained aspects of general social norms specifically related to mathematical practices. These can include, but are not limited to, a...
Show moreSocial norms are patterns of behavior expected within a particular society in a given situation. Social norms can be shared belief of what is normal and acceptable shapes and enforces the actions of people in a society. In the educational classroom, they are characteristics that constitute the classroom participation structure. Sociomathematical norms are finegrained aspects of general social norms specifically related to mathematical practices. These can include, but are not limited to, a studentcentered classroom that includes the expectation that the students should present their solution methods by describing actions on mathematical objects rather than simply accounting for calculational manipulations. For this action research study, my goal was to determine if the role of the teacher would influence the social and sociomathematical norms in a mathematics classroom and in what ways are sociomathematical norms reflected in students' written work. I focused specifically on students' mathematics journal writing and taped conversations. I discovered that students tended to not justify their work. Also, I discovered that my idea of justification was not really justification. I learned from this and was able to change my idea of justification. By encouraging the students to socialize in mathematics class, I found that the quality of their dialogue improved. Students readily discussed mathematical concepts within small groups and whole class discussions.
Show less  Date Issued
 2007
 Identifier
 CFE0001650, ucf:47245
 Format
 Document (PDF)
 PURL
 http://purl.flvc.org/ucf/fd/CFE0001650
 Title
 PROSPECTIVE TEACHERS' DEVELOPMENT OF WHOLE NUMBER CONCEPTS AND OPERATIONS DURING A CLASSROOM TEACHING EXPERIMENT.
 Creator

Roy, George, Dixon, Juli, University of Central Florida
 Abstract / Description

A classroom teaching experiment was conducted to document prospective teachers' development of whole number concepts and operations. The purpose of this mixedmethods study was to examine the collective understanding of prospective teachers in an elementary mathematics content course. Design research methodology, specifically a classroom teaching experiment was the methodology selected for this study since it allows learning to be documented in a classroom environment and is iterative in...
Show moreA classroom teaching experiment was conducted to document prospective teachers' development of whole number concepts and operations. The purpose of this mixedmethods study was to examine the collective understanding of prospective teachers in an elementary mathematics content course. Design research methodology, specifically a classroom teaching experiment was the methodology selected for this study since it allows learning to be documented in a classroom environment and is iterative in nature. A revised hypothetical learning trajectory and instructional tasks from a previous classroom teaching experiment were used in this study (Andreasen, 2006). Research about children's development of whole number concepts and operations was used in developing instructional learning goals. In addition, research regarding prospective teachers' development supported the instructional modification that all tasks would be presented and expected to be reasoned about in base8. Both qualitative data and quantitative data were collected. Qualitative data included whole class dialogue that was videotaped and transcribed, as well as student work samples. Quantitative data included items from the Content Knowledge for Teaching Mathematics database that were administered prior to and subsequent to the instructional sequence in base8 (Hill, Schilling, & Ball, 2005). It should be noted that the items selected from the database were in base10. The emergent perspective served as the interpretive framework of the collected qualitative data. This perspective reflexively coordinates the social or group perspective simultaneously with psychological or individual perspective. As stated, this study sought to describe the communal mathematics understanding of prospective teachers in an elementary mathematics content course. Toulmin's (1969) model of argumentation and Rasmussen and Stephan's threephase methodology served to document normative ways of group reasoning called classroom mathematical practices. The following classroom mathematical practices were identified as takenasshared by prospective teachers: (a) developing small number relationships using Double 10Frames, (b) developing twodigit thinking strategies using the open number line, (c) flexibly representing equivalent quantities using pictures or Inventory Forms, and (d) developing addition and subtraction strategies using pictures or an Inventory Form. Quantitative results indicated that prospective teachers were able to apply mathematical understandings grounded in base8 to whole number concepts in base10. In the end, counting and calculating in base8 provides a meaningful context for prospective teachers to reconstruct their knowledge of whole number concepts and operations.
Show less  Date Issued
 2008
 Identifier
 CFE0002398, ucf:47754
 Format
 Document (PDF)
 PURL
 http://purl.flvc.org/ucf/fd/CFE0002398
 Title
 AN ACTION RESEARCH STUDY INVOLVING FIFTHGRADE STUDENTS LEARNING FRACTIONS THROUGH A SITUATIVE PERSPECTIVE WITH STORY PROBLEMS.
 Creator

Allen, Colleen, Dixon, Juli, University of Central Florida
 Abstract / Description

ABSTRACT The purpose of this action research study was to investigate the affects of teaching through a situative perspective with story problems on students' understanding of fraction concepts and operations in my fifthgrade mathematics classroom. Students participated in twelve weeks of instruction. Data was collected in the form of pre and post tests, audiotaped and videotaped recordings of instructional sessions, and student work samples. Data analysis revealed that my students...
Show moreABSTRACT The purpose of this action research study was to investigate the affects of teaching through a situative perspective with story problems on students' understanding of fraction concepts and operations in my fifthgrade mathematics classroom. Students participated in twelve weeks of instruction. Data was collected in the form of pre and post tests, audiotaped and videotaped recordings of instructional sessions, and student work samples. Data analysis revealed that my students constructed their own knowledge about various fraction concepts and operations because students engaged in discussions, after solving story problems, that developed, extended and restructured their knowledge. One example of this occurred after students had solved an equalsharing problem. Two students came up with different answers and another student explained why both answers were equivalent. Student work samples and post test results indicated that the one student's explanation was understood, adopted and extended by all the students in my class. The data also revealed that students' pictures typically represented the context and action of the story problems. For example, subtraction problems dealing with length were usually represented by number lines or horizontal rectangles with crossedout markings to show the subtraction operation. Throughout this research study, I discovered that my students were capable of learning from each other and solving problems for which they have no preconceived algorithm. I also learned that analyzing students' work and listening to their discussions in ways that focused on their thinking, not their answers, provided me with information about what my students were grasping and not grasping.
Show less  Date Issued
 2005
 Identifier
 CFE0000538, ucf:46423
 Format
 Document (PDF)
 PURL
 http://purl.flvc.org/ucf/fd/CFE0000538
 Title
 FRACTION MODELS THAT PROMOTE UNDERSTANDING FOR ELEMENTARY STUDENTS.
 Creator

Hull, Lynette, Dixon, Juli, University of Central Florida
 Abstract / Description

This study examined the use of the set, area, and linear models of fraction representation to enhance elementary students' conceptual understanding of fractions. Students' preferences regarding the set, area, and linear models of fractions during independent work was also investigated. This study took place in a 5th grade class consisting of 21 students in a suburban public elementary school. Students participated in classroom activities which required them to use manipulatives to represent...
Show moreThis study examined the use of the set, area, and linear models of fraction representation to enhance elementary students' conceptual understanding of fractions. Students' preferences regarding the set, area, and linear models of fractions during independent work was also investigated. This study took place in a 5th grade class consisting of 21 students in a suburban public elementary school. Students participated in classroom activities which required them to use manipulatives to represent fractions using the set, area, and linear models. Students also had experiences using the models to investigate equivalent fractions, compare fractions, and perform operations. Students maintained journals throughout the study, completed a pre and post assessment, participated in class discussions, and participated in individual interviews concerning their fraction model preference. Analysis of the data revealed an increase in conceptual understanding. The data concerning student preferences were inconsistent, as students' choices during independent work did not always reflect the preferences indicated in the interviews.
Show less  Date Issued
 2005
 Identifier
 CFE0000552, ucf:46428
 Format
 Document (PDF)
 PURL
 http://purl.flvc.org/ucf/fd/CFE0000552
 Title
 CHALLENGING A TRADITIONAL SOCIAL NORM IN A SECOND GRADE MATHEMATICS CLASSROOM.
 Creator

Egendoerfer, Lisa, Dixon, Juli K., University of Central Florida
 Abstract / Description

In an attempt to examine classroom dialogue within a second grade classroom, I encouraged students to participate in mathematics discussions without needing to raise their hands before speaking. I challenged this traditional social norm and established sociomathematical norms as the study progressed. My study showed the effects of this change on the dialogue of students in my classroom. Focus was placed on the participation in classroom discussions when traditional social and...
Show moreIn an attempt to examine classroom dialogue within a second grade classroom, I encouraged students to participate in mathematics discussions without needing to raise their hands before speaking. I challenged this traditional social norm and established sociomathematical norms as the study progressed. My study showed the effects of this change on the dialogue of students in my classroom. Focus was placed on the participation in classroom discussions when traditional social and sociomathematical norms were in place as well as when new norms were established. The study helped determine the effects of studentcentered dialogue on conceptual understanding as demonstrated in the students' discussions, participation, and written expression.
Show less  Date Issued
 2006
 Identifier
 CFE0000946, ucf:46734
 Format
 Document (PDF)
 PURL
 http://purl.flvc.org/ucf/fd/CFE0000946
 Title
 CLASSROOM MATHEMATICAL PRACTICES IN A PRESERVICE ELEMENTARY MATHEMATICS EDUCATION COURSE USING AN INSTRUCTIONAL SEQUENCE RELATED TO PLACE VALUE AND OPERATIONS.
 Creator

Andreasen, Janet, Dixon, Juli, University of Central Florida
 Abstract / Description

This qualitative study documents a classroom teaching experiment in a semesterlong undergraduate mathematics education course for 16 prospective elementary school teachers. The purpose of this study was to investigate how social aspects of the classroom environment facilitated the collective mathematical learning of place value and whole number operations by preservice elementary school teachers. Designbased research methodology was used for formulating the study. A hypothetical learning...
Show moreThis qualitative study documents a classroom teaching experiment in a semesterlong undergraduate mathematics education course for 16 prospective elementary school teachers. The purpose of this study was to investigate how social aspects of the classroom environment facilitated the collective mathematical learning of place value and whole number operations by preservice elementary school teachers. Designbased research methodology was used for formulating the study. A hypothetical learning trajectory and instructional sequence related to place value and operations were created and refined in the two semesters prior to this study. The instructional sequence was in its third iteration for this study. The developmental levels that children progress through in learning place value and operations were used in identifying the learning trajectory and supporting tasks in which the preservice teachers were asked to engage. A large portion of the instructional sequence involved a setting of base eight instead of base ten. The sequence returned to base ten in order to discuss whole number operations and alternative strategies for operations in an effort to further develop the preservice teachers' conceptual understandings of place value and operations and to examine children's thinking strategies. Data were collected through videotaped recordings of class sessions, audiotaped recordings of table discussions and research team meetings, field notes, and journals written by the research team. Sixteen preservice teachers participated in the study which lasted over 5 class sessions of 3 hours and 10 minutes each. The emergent perspective which attempts to coordinate the individual learning and the social aspects of the classroom that support collective learning was used as an interpretive lens for data collection and analysis. The social aspects along with some aspects of individual student understandings together give an indication of collective mathematical understandings of the students as a whole group. Social norms established were: a) the expectation of providing explanations and justifications for solutions and solution methods, b) making sense of each other's solutions and c) asking questions of classmates or the instructor. Sociomathematical norms that were valued but not fully established were: a) criteria for different solutions and solution methods and b) criteria for what constituted a good explanation. Data analysis for the establishment of classroom mathematical practices was conducted using Toulmin's argumentation model (Toulmin, 1969). A three phase approach described by Rasmussen and Stephan (in press) was used in determining what constituted a classroom mathematical practice. The classroom mathematical practices that facilitated student learning in this study were: a) unitizing, b) flexibly representing numbers, and c) reasoning about operations. This study led to the refinement of the hypothetical learning trajectory and further progress in defining an instructional theory of how preservice teachers may come to understand place value and whole number operations.
Show less  Date Issued
 2006
 Identifier
 CFE0000917, ucf:46718
 Format
 Document (PDF)
 PURL
 http://purl.flvc.org/ucf/fd/CFE0000917
 Title
 THE EFFECTS OF A PROJECTBASED MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM ON MIDDLE SCHOOL STUDENTS' INTENDED CAREER PATHS RELATED TO SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, ENGINEERING AND MATHEMATICS.
 Creator

Clanton, Barbara, Dixon, Juli, University of Central Florida
 Abstract / Description

This study is an examination of whether a projectbased mathematics curriculum would influence students' intended career paths related to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) endeavors; perceived usefulness of mathematics; and perceived competence in doing mathematics. A review of the literature revealed that there are many shortages of professionals in STEM fields. United States women and men are not pursuing STEM endeavors in great numbers and the U.S. relies heavily on...
Show moreThis study is an examination of whether a projectbased mathematics curriculum would influence students' intended career paths related to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) endeavors; perceived usefulness of mathematics; and perceived competence in doing mathematics. A review of the literature revealed that there are many shortages of professionals in STEM fields. United States women and men are not pursuing STEM endeavors in great numbers and the U.S. relies heavily on international students to fill this gap. The literature revealed that the girls who do not pursue STEM endeavors in great numbers do not perceive mathematics as a useful endeavor and do not think they are competent in doing mathematics. Boys who do not pursue STEM endeavors in great numbers also do not perceive mathematics as a useful endeavor. The study involved 7th and 8th grade school students enrolled in algebra classes in a private collegepreparatory school. The students in the experimental group participated in a problembased curriculum that integrated lecturebased methods with four major projects designed to have students apply mathematics out of the context through handson reallife problems. This particular quasiexperimental design was a nonequivalent pretest/posttest control group design. Statistical analyses were done using a general linear model repeated measures. The results of the statistical analyses indicated that the students in the projectbased group showed a statistically significant positive change in their perceived usefulness of mathematics when compared to the control group. A ttest revealed no statistically significant differences in academic achievement. Qualitative data analysis uncovered three emergent themes. Students indicated that they saw the usefulness of mathematics more clearly; students' independence from the teacher while doing the projects was unsettling; and students enjoyed the change of pace in class. The results of the study indicated that a projectbased mathematics curriculum can help students see the usefulness of mathematics and can help students enjoy the pursuit of mathematics by this particular change of routine.
Show less  Date Issued
 2005
 Identifier
 CFE0000907, ucf:46765
 Format
 Document (PDF)
 PURL
 http://purl.flvc.org/ucf/fd/CFE0000907
 Title
 THE PATHS TO BECOMING A MATHEMATICS TEACHER.
 Creator

Lowry, Kimberly, Dixon, Juli K., University of Central Florida
 Abstract / Description

Increasing numbers of mathematics teachers must be recruited in coming years, because of a growing student population, teacher attrition, calls for smaller class size, and the need to replace outofsubject teachers. Recruitment can be made more effective and efficient, if better information on career paths is provided to decision makers. This study attempts to analyze the academic decisions which lead to the outcome "becoming a mathematics teacher". Four groups were compared and contrasted:...
Show moreIncreasing numbers of mathematics teachers must be recruited in coming years, because of a growing student population, teacher attrition, calls for smaller class size, and the need to replace outofsubject teachers. Recruitment can be made more effective and efficient, if better information on career paths is provided to decision makers. This study attempts to analyze the academic decisions which lead to the outcome "becoming a mathematics teacher". Four groups were compared and contrasted: mathematics teachers, science teachers, other teachers, and nonteachers. Science teachers were removed from the "other teachers" category because of their many similarities to mathematics teachers on the variables examined. The question of whether these groups differ in ways that could help predict the outcome of interest was examined using the NCES dataset Baccalaureate &Beyond:93/97, which provides thousands of variables on academic path, demographics, and labor market histories for over 8,000 individuals. It was analyzed using the NCES online analytic tool DAS to generate tables showing percentage distribution of the four groups on variables organized according to the concepts demographics, family environment, academic path, and academic achievement. Further examination was conducted by entering the variables into a discriminant analysis. Mathematics teachers were found to differ from teachers of other K12 fields on all of the four conceptual categories. However, only a few such differences were statistically significant. More significant differences were observed when the analyses were conducted separately for women and men. The trend observed was that those who became mathematics teachers were more likely to have attended public high schools and to have first attended twoyear colleges; to have lower GPAs, more mathematics credits, and midrange CEE scores; and to be female.
Show less  Date Issued
 2006
 Identifier
 CFE0001002, ucf:46835
 Format
 Document (PDF)
 PURL
 http://purl.flvc.org/ucf/fd/CFE0001002
 Title
 HOW MY PRACTICE OF USING MANIPULATIVES IN TEACHING MULTIPLYING AND DIVIDING FRACTIONS INFLUENCES THE STUDENTS' CONCEPTUAL UNDERSTANDING OF THESE OPERATIONS.
 Creator

Bale, Vickie, Dixon, Juli, University of Central Florida
 Abstract / Description

This qualitative study examined how my practice of using manipulatives to teach multiplying and dividing fractions to 8th grade students facilitated their conceptual understanding of those operations. The students who participated in the study were enrolled in one of my intensive mathematics classes. Before the lessons began, I interviewed the students and gave them a preassessment to determine their content knowledge and comfort level with manipulatives. The students engaged in activities...
Show moreThis qualitative study examined how my practice of using manipulatives to teach multiplying and dividing fractions to 8th grade students facilitated their conceptual understanding of those operations. The students who participated in the study were enrolled in one of my intensive mathematics classes. Before the lessons began, I interviewed the students and gave them a preassessment to determine their content knowledge and comfort level with manipulatives. The students engaged in activities that included solving problems using various manipulatives. During the activities, I made observations of their problem solving techniques and how they used the manipulatives. At the conclusion of the unit I gave them a post assessment and conducted post interviews to determine any change in their content knowledge and comfort level with using manipulatives. I concluded through my research that by giving the students a handson, mindson approach to learning they were able to develop an understanding of the concepts and apply that knowledge to multiplying and dividing fractions.
Show less  Date Issued
 2006
 Identifier
 CFE0001068, ucf:46812
 Format
 Document (PDF)
 PURL
 http://purl.flvc.org/ucf/fd/CFE0001068
 Title
 EFFECTS ON STUDENT PERFORMANCE OF USING HANDSON ACTIVITIES TO TEACH SEVENTH GRADE STUDENTS MEASUREMENT CONCEPTS.
 Creator

Hoke, Darlene, Dixon, Juli, University of Central Florida
 Abstract / Description

Student performance on measurement concepts in mathematics was the basis for this action research study. This study summarizes research conducted in a seventh grade classroom at an urban middle school during fall of 2005. The study investigated the practice of using handson activities in addition to the standard mathematics curriculum to improve student performance in measurement tasks. Students were asked to respond to questions posed by both teacher and other students in the classroom....
Show moreStudent performance on measurement concepts in mathematics was the basis for this action research study. This study summarizes research conducted in a seventh grade classroom at an urban middle school during fall of 2005. The study investigated the practice of using handson activities in addition to the standard mathematics curriculum to improve student performance in measurement tasks. Students were asked to respond to questions posed by both teacher and other students in the classroom. Data were collected using measurement survey, focus group discussions, math journals, and teacher observations. Results of this study showed that student performance on measurement tasks increased throughout the course of the study. Student gains were recorded and analyzed throughout the eightweek study period. Twentyone out of 26 students that participated in the study showed performance growth in measurement concepts.
Show less  Date Issued
 2008
 Identifier
 CFE0002228, ucf:47890
 Format
 Document (PDF)
 PURL
 http://purl.flvc.org/ucf/fd/CFE0002228
 Title
 DEVELOPING FOURTH GRADERS' PROFICIENCY IN BASIC MULTIPLICATION FACTS THROUGH STRATEGY INSTRUCTION.
 Creator

Braddock, Stacey, Dixon, Juli, University of Central Florida
 Abstract / Description

The purpose of this action research study was to evaluate my own practice of teaching basic multiplication facts to fourth graders. I wanted to see how focusing my instruction on strategies would help my students develop proficiency in basic multiplication facts. I chose this topic because Florida was in the process of shifting to new standards that encourage teaching for deeper meaning. I hoped this research would give my students the opportunity to make sense of multiplication on a deeper...
Show moreThe purpose of this action research study was to evaluate my own practice of teaching basic multiplication facts to fourth graders. I wanted to see how focusing my instruction on strategies would help my students develop proficiency in basic multiplication facts. I chose this topic because Florida was in the process of shifting to new standards that encourage teaching for deeper meaning. I hoped this research would give my students the opportunity to make sense of multiplication on a deeper level, while giving me insight into how students learn multiplication. Through this study, I learned that students initially find multiplication to be very difficult, but they can solve basic facts with ease when using strategies. Students did become more proficient with basic multiplication facts, and they were also able to apply basic fact strategies to extended facts and other multidigit multiplication problems. There is a limited amount of research on how students acquire basic multiplication fact proficiency; however, this study offers more insight to teachers and the research community.
Show less  Date Issued
 2010
 Identifier
 CFE0003023, ucf:48370
 Format
 Document (PDF)
 PURL
 http://purl.flvc.org/ucf/fd/CFE0003023
 Title
 SUPPORTING A STANDARDSBASED TEACHING AND LEARNING ENVIRONMENT: A CASE STUDY OF AN EXPERT MIDDLE SCHOOL MATHEMATICS TEACHER.
 Creator

Akyuz, Didem, Dixon, Juli K., University of Central Florida
 Abstract / Description

Although it has been more than 20 years since the publication of Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics (NCTM, 1989) and 10 years since the second version of standards, Principles and Standards for School Mathematics (NCTM, 2000), the research underlines the lack of essential practices for standardsbased teaching (Franke, Kazemi, & Battey, 2007). The literature also emphasizes the importance of planning in standardsbased teaching, although few studies focus on the direct...
Show moreAlthough it has been more than 20 years since the publication of Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics (NCTM, 1989) and 10 years since the second version of standards, Principles and Standards for School Mathematics (NCTM, 2000), the research underlines the lack of essential practices for standardsbased teaching (Franke, Kazemi, & Battey, 2007). The literature also emphasizes the importance of planning in standardsbased teaching, although few studies focus on the direct planning of the teacher (Kilpatrick, Swafford, & Findell, 2001). The aim of the current study was to conduct a case study to extract the planning and classroom practices of an expert seventh grade mathematics teacher. The extracted practices were interpreted using the teachingincontext theory which is based on the beliefs, goals, and knowledge of the teacher. The case study was conducted in a design experiment environment where the instructional sequence was revised based on the classroom instruction. The data were collected through different resources including videotapes of classroom sessions, teacher notes, students' artifacts, audiotapes of daily teacher interviews, weekly teacher meetings and classroom small groups in five weeks. Transcripts were used to observe the action patterns of the teacher during both planning and classroom practices. By triangulating the data, planning practices were separated into five categories: preparation, reflection, anticipation, assessment, and revision. These practices were interrelated in an environment of collaboration. Classroom practices also were categorized into five groups, namely creating and sustaining social norms, facilitating genuine mathematical discourse, supporting the development of sociomathematical norms, capitalizing on students' imagery to create inscriptions and notation, and developing small groups as communities of learners. Similar to the planning practices, these were also highly interrelated with social norms playing a key role in application of all other practices. The results showed that the expert teacher used a diverse set of practices with each practice comprised of multiple actions to create and sustain a standardsbased environment. The results also indicated that standardsbased teaching requires a rich and connected body of knowledge about students, curriculum, content, and literature. It was found that the depth of the teacher's knowledge allowed her to develop practices that were consistent with her beliefs and goals. Finally, the planning and classroom practices were found to be highly interrelated. While effective planning practices facilitated the application of standardsbased teaching, the classroom teaching practices equipped the teacher with the data necessary to perform effective planning practices.
Show less  Date Issued
 2010
 Identifier
 CFE0003449, ucf:48395
 Format
 Document (PDF)
 PURL
 http://purl.flvc.org/ucf/fd/CFE0003449
 Title
 PRESERVICE ELEMENTARY TEACHERS' DEVELOPMENT OF RATIONAL NUMBER UNDERSTANDING THROUGH THE SOCIAL PERSPECTIVE AND THE RELATIONSHIP AMONG SOCIAL AND INDIVIDUAL ENVIRONMENTS.
 Creator

Tobias, Jennifer, Dixon, Juli, University of Central Florida
 Abstract / Description

A classroom teaching experiment was conducted in a semesterlong undergraduate mathematics content course for elementary education majors. Preservice elementary teachers' development of rational number understanding was documented through the social and psychological perspectives. In addition, social and sociomathematical norms were documented as part of the classroom structure. A hypothetical learning trajectory and instructional sequence were created from a combination of previous...
Show moreA classroom teaching experiment was conducted in a semesterlong undergraduate mathematics content course for elementary education majors. Preservice elementary teachers' development of rational number understanding was documented through the social and psychological perspectives. In addition, social and sociomathematical norms were documented as part of the classroom structure. A hypothetical learning trajectory and instructional sequence were created from a combination of previous research with children and adults. Transcripts from each class session were analyzed to determine the social and sociomathematical norms as well as the classroom mathematical practices. The social norms established included a) explaining and justifying solutions and solution processes, b) making sense of others' explanations and justifications, c) questioning others when misunderstandings occur, and d) helping others. The sociomathematical norms established included determining what constitutes a) an acceptable solution and b) a different solution. The classroom mathematical practices established included ideas related to a) defining fractions, b) defining the whole, c) partitioning, d) unitizing, e) finding equivalent fractions, f) comparing and ordering fractions, g) adding and subtracting fractions, and h) multiplying fractions. The analysis of individual students' contributions included analyzing the transcripts to determine the ways in which individuals participated in the establishment of the practices. Individuals contributed to the practices by a) introducing ideas and b) sustaining ideas. The transcripts and student work samples were analyzed to determine the ways in which the social classroom environment impacted student learning. Student learning was affected when a) ideas were rejected and b) ideas were accepted. As a result of the data analysis, the hypothetical learning trajectory was refined to include four phases of learning instead of five. In addition, the instructional sequence was refined to include more focus on ratios. Two activities, the number line and between activities, were suggested to be deleted because they did not contribute to students' development.
Show less  Date Issued
 2009
 Identifier
 CFE0002737, ucf:48165
 Format
 Document (PDF)
 PURL
 http://purl.flvc.org/ucf/fd/CFE0002737
 Title
 EXPLORING THE UNDERSTANDING OF WHOLE NUMBER CONCEPTS AND OPERATIONS: A CASE STUDY ANALYSIS OF PROSPECTIVE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHERS.
 Creator

Safi, Farshid, Dixon, Juli K., University of Central Florida
 Abstract / Description

This research project aimed to extend the research literature by providing greater insight into the way individual prospective teachers develop their conceptual understanding of whole number concepts and operations in a social context. In this qualitative study, a case study analysis provided the opportunity for careful exploration of the manner in which prospective teachers' understanding changed and the ways two selected participants reorganized their mathematical thinking within a...
Show moreThis research project aimed to extend the research literature by providing greater insight into the way individual prospective teachers develop their conceptual understanding of whole number concepts and operations in a social context. In this qualitative study, a case study analysis provided the opportunity for careful exploration of the manner in which prospective teachers' understanding changed and the ways two selected participants reorganized their mathematical thinking within a classroom teaching experiment. While previous research efforts insisted on creating a dichotomy of choosing the individual or the collective understanding, through the utilization of the emergent perspective both the individual and the social aspects were considered. Specifically, using the emergent perspective as a theoretical framework, this research endeavor has outlined the mathematical conceptions and activities of individual prospective teachers and thus has provided the psychological perspective correlate to the social perspective's classroom mathematical practices. As the research participants progressed through an instructional sequence taught entirely in base8, a case study approach was used to select and analyze two individuals. In order to gain a more thorough understanding of the individual perspective, this research endeavor focused on whether teachers with varying initial content knowledge developed differently through this instructional sequence. The first participant initially demonstrated "LowContent" knowledge according to the CKTM instrument database questions which measure content knowledge for teaching mathematics. She developed a greater understanding of place value concepts and was able to apply this new knowledge to gain a deeper sense of the rationale behind counting strategies and addition and subtraction operations. She did not demonstrate the ability to consistently make sense of multiplication and division strategies. She participated in the classroom argumentation primarily by providing claims and data as she illustrated the way she would use different procedures to solve addition and subtraction problems. The second participant illustrated "HighContent" knowledge based on the CKTM instrument. She already possessed a solid foundation in understanding place value concepts and throughout the instructional sequence developed various ways to connect and build on her initial understanding through the synthesis of multiple pedagogical content tools. She demonstrated conceptual understanding of counting strategies, and all four whole number operations. Furthermore, by exploring various ways that other prospective teachers solved the problems, she also presented a greater pedagogical perspective in how other prospective teachers think mathematically. This prospective teacher showed a shift in her participation in classroom argumentation as she began by providing claims and data at the outset of the instructional sequence. Later on, she predominantly provided the warrants and backings to integrate the mathematical concepts and pedagogical tools used to develop greater understanding of whole number operations. These results indicate the findings based on the individual casestudy analysis of prospective elementary school teachers and the crosscase analysis that ensued. The researcher contends that through the synthesis of the findings of this project along with current relevant research efforts, teacher educators and educational policy makers can revisit and possibly revise instructional practices and sequences in order to develop teachers with greater conceptual understanding of concepts vital to elementary mathematics.
Show less  Date Issued
 2009
 Identifier
 CFE0002811, ucf:48097
 Format
 Document (PDF)
 PURL
 http://purl.flvc.org/ucf/fd/CFE0002811