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 Title
 CHARACTERIZATION OF THE NONLINEAR REFRACTIVE INDEX OF CARBONDISULFIDE OVER AN EXTENDED SPECTRAL AND TEMPORAL RANGE.
 Creator

Seidel, Marcus, Van Stryland, Eric, University of Central Florida
 Abstract / Description

The intensity dependent refractive index change of a medium is frequently described in terms of the product n2xI where n2 is the nonlinear refractive index and I the light intensity. The nonlinear refractive index is often treated as constant which is a reasonable assumption if the light interacts only with bound electrons. In the case of carbon disulfide (CS2) however, nuclear motions contribute to n2. These motions occur on the sub picosecond time scale and thus become especially relevant...
Show moreThe intensity dependent refractive index change of a medium is frequently described in terms of the product n2xI where n2 is the nonlinear refractive index and I the light intensity. The nonlinear refractive index is often treated as constant which is a reasonable assumption if the light interacts only with bound electrons. In the case of carbon disulfide (CS2) however, nuclear motions contribute to n2. These motions occur on the sub picosecond time scale and thus become especially relevant for ultrashort laser pulses. The neat liquid CS2 is studied because it exhibits a large nonlinear refractive index in comparison to other liquids. Therefore, it is employed in optical switching, optical limiting, and beam filamentation applications. This thesis presents effective n2 values for Gaussian shaped linearly polarized pulses with central wavelengths of 700nm. A theoretical model describing the time evolution of the material response is applied to distinguish between the instantaneous electronic, the ultrafast nuclear and the slow nuclear origins of the nonlinear refractive index. Moreover, the tensor nature of the material response function is studied by means of circularly polarized light. The relative magnitudes of bound electronic and nuclear contributions to n2 are experimentally determined. Eventually, the dispersion of the instantaneous electronic response is measured in the spectral range between 411nm and 1064nm.
Show less  Date Issued
 2011
 Identifier
 CFE0004052, ucf:49141
 Format
 Document (PDF)
 PURL
 http://purl.flvc.org/ucf/fd/CFE0004052
 Title
 NONLINEAR ABSORPTION AND FREE CARRIER RECOMBINATION IN DIRECT GAP SEMICONDUCTORS.
 Creator

Olszak, Peter, Van Stryland, Eric, University of Central Florida
 Abstract / Description

Nonlinear absorption of Indium Antimonide (InSb) has been studied for many years, yet due to the complexity of absorption mechanisms and experimental difficulties in the infrared, this is still a subject of research. Although measurements have been made in the past, a consistent model that worked for both picosecond and nanosecond pulse widths had not been demonstrated. In this project, temperature dependent twophoton (2PA) and free carrier absorption (FCA) spectra of InSb are measured using...
Show moreNonlinear absorption of Indium Antimonide (InSb) has been studied for many years, yet due to the complexity of absorption mechanisms and experimental difficulties in the infrared, this is still a subject of research. Although measurements have been made in the past, a consistent model that worked for both picosecond and nanosecond pulse widths had not been demonstrated. In this project, temperature dependent twophoton (2PA) and free carrier absorption (FCA) spectra of InSb are measured using femtosecond, picosecond, and nanosecond IR sources. The 2PA spectrum is measured at room temperature with femtosecond pulses, and the temperature dependence of 2PA and FCA is measured at 10.6m using a nanosecond CO2 laser giving results consistent with the temperature dependent measurements at several wavelengths made with a tunable picosecond system. Measurements over this substantial range of pulse widths give results for FCA and 2PA consistent with a recent theoretical model for FCA. While the FCA cross section has been generally accepted in the past to be a constant for the temperatures and wavelengths used in this study, this model predicts that it varies significantly with temperature as well as wavelength. Additionally, the results for 2PA are consistent with the band gap scaling (Eg3) predicted by a simple two parabolic band model. Using nanosecond pulses from a CO2 laser enables the recombination rates to be determined through nonlinear transmittance measurements. Threephoton absorption is also observed in InSb for photon energies below the 2PA band edge. Prior to this work, data on threephoton absorption (3PA) in semiconductors was scarce and most experiments were performed over narrow spectral ranges, making comparison to the available theoretical models difficult. There was also disagreement between the theoretical results generated by different models, primarily in the spectral behavior. Therefore, we studied the band gap scaling and spectra of 3PA in several semiconductors by the Zscan technique. The 3PA coefficient is found to vary as (Eg7), as predicted by the scaling rules of simple two parabolic band models. The spectral behavior, which is considerably more complex than for 2PA, is found to agree well with a recently published theory based on a fourband model.
Show less  Date Issued
 2010
 Identifier
 CFE0003402, ucf:48418
 Format
 Document (PDF)
 PURL
 http://purl.flvc.org/ucf/fd/CFE0003402
 Title
 Analysis and Simulation for Homogeneous and Heterogeneous SIR Models.
 Creator

Wilda, Joseph, Shuai, Zhisheng, Brennan, Joseph, Nevai, A, University of Central Florida
 Abstract / Description

In mathematical epidemiology, disease transmission is commonly assumed to behave in accordance with the law of mass action; however, other disease incidence terms also exist in the literature. A homogeneous SusceptibleInfectiousRemoved (SIR) model with a generalized incidence term is presented along with analytic and numerical results concerning effects of the generalization on the global disease dynamics. The spatial heterogeneity of the metapopulation with nonrandom directed movement...
Show moreIn mathematical epidemiology, disease transmission is commonly assumed to behave in accordance with the law of mass action; however, other disease incidence terms also exist in the literature. A homogeneous SusceptibleInfectiousRemoved (SIR) model with a generalized incidence term is presented along with analytic and numerical results concerning effects of the generalization on the global disease dynamics. The spatial heterogeneity of the metapopulation with nonrandom directed movement between populations is incorporated into a heterogeneous SIR model with nonlinear incidence. The analysis of the combined effects of the spatial heterogeneity and nonlinear incidence on the disease dynamics of our model is presented along with supporting simulations. New global stability results are established for the heterogeneous model utilizing a graphtheoretic approach and Lyapunov functions. Numerical simulations confirm nonlinear incidence gives raise to rich dynamics such as synchronization and phaselock oscillations.
Show less  Date Issued
 2015
 Identifier
 CFE0005906, ucf:50872
 Format
 Document (PDF)
 PURL
 http://purl.flvc.org/ucf/fd/CFE0005906
 Title
 In Actu Et In Silicio: Linear and Nonlinear Photophysical Characterization of a Novel Europium Complex, and Incorporating Computational Calculations in the Analysis of Novel Organic Compounds.
 Creator

Woodward, Adam, Belfield, Kevin, Campiglia, Andres, Harper, James, Frazer, Andrew, Cheng, Zixi, University of Central Florida
 Abstract / Description

Despite not being a tangible substance, light is becoming an increasingly valuable tool in numerous areas of science and technology: the use of laser excitation of a fluorescent probe can generate incredibly detailed images of cellular structures without the need for large amounts of dissection; new types of solar cells are being produced using organic dyes to harvest light; computer data can be stored by inducing a chemical change in a compound through irradiation with light. However, before...
Show moreDespite not being a tangible substance, light is becoming an increasingly valuable tool in numerous areas of science and technology: the use of laser excitation of a fluorescent probe can generate incredibly detailed images of cellular structures without the need for large amounts of dissection; new types of solar cells are being produced using organic dyes to harvest light; computer data can be stored by inducing a chemical change in a compound through irradiation with light. However, before any of these materials can be applied in such a way, their properties must first be analyzed for them to be deemed viable.The focus of this dissertation is the photophysical characterization, linear and nonlinear, of a several novel organic compounds, and a europium complex, as well as using quantum chemical calculation techniques to understand some of the phenomena that are witnessed and begin to develop predictive capability. The nonlinear characterization of compounds utilizes wavelengths outside of their linear absorption range, where a focused beam can achieve the same excitation as one at half the wavelength, though this effect has a quadratic dependence on power.The potential for nonlinear excitation, or twophoton absorption (2PA), is becoming of increasing interest and importance for organic chromophores. Exciting only a small volume of material at a focal point makes it possible to nondestructively image samples in 3dimensions, record data in multiple layers, and fabricate intricate structures through photopolymerization reactions.Lanthanides such as europium are known to exhibit sharp emission bands when excited, typically through an antenna effect due to the low probability of achieving direct excitation. This emission is longlived, and through gating systems can readily be separated from background noise and autofluorescence (often observed in biological samples) that have much shorter lifetimes. Thus, one of the foci of this dissertation is the photophysical investigation of a series of novel lanthanide complexes, with particular attention to a europium complex.
Show less  Date Issued
 2014
 Identifier
 CFE0005908, ucf:50891
 Format
 Document (PDF)
 PURL
 http://purl.flvc.org/ucf/fd/CFE0005908
 Title
 A Flexible PhysicsBased Lifing Method for Metals Under Creep and Thermomechanical Fatigue.
 Creator

Irmak, Firat, Gordon, Ali, Catbas, Necati, Raghavan, Seetha, University of Central Florida
 Abstract / Description

This thesis focuses on the development of a flexible, physicsbased life prediction approach for steels under complex conditions. Low alloy steels continue to be the materials of choice for large turbomachinery structures experiencing high temperatures for long durations. There has been significant advancement in the research of modern alloys; furthermore, these materials are continue to be utilized in boilers, heat exchanger tubes, and throttle valve bodies in both turbomachinery and...
Show moreThis thesis focuses on the development of a flexible, physicsbased life prediction approach for steels under complex conditions. Low alloy steels continue to be the materials of choice for large turbomachinery structures experiencing high temperatures for long durations. There has been significant advancement in the research of modern alloys; furthermore, these materials are continue to be utilized in boilers, heat exchanger tubes, and throttle valve bodies in both turbomachinery and pressurevessel/piping applications. The material 2.25Cr1Mo is studied in the present work. The resistance of this alloy to deformation and damage under creep and/or fatigue at elevated temperatures make it appropriate for structures required to endure decades of service. Also, this material displays an excellent balance of ductility, corrosion resistance, and creep strength under aggressive operating conditions. Both creepfatigue (CF) and thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) have been the limiting factor for most turbine components fabricated from various alloys; therefore, a life prediction approach is constructed for simulating fatigue life for cases where the material is experiencing mechanical loading with thermal cycling. Flexibility is imparted to the model through its ability to emphasize the dominant damage mechanism which may vary among alloys. A material database is developed to improve and compare the model with experimental data. This database contains low cycle fatigue (LCF), creep fatigue (CF), and thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) experiments. Parameters for the model are obtained with regression fits with the support of a broad experimental database. Additionally, the cumulative damage approach, better known as Miner's rule, is used in this study as the fundamental method to combine damage mechanisms. Life predictions are obtained by the usage of a noninteracting creepplasticity constitutive model capable of simulating not only the temperature and ratedependence.
Show less  Date Issued
 2017
 Identifier
 CFE0006885, ucf:51731
 Format
 Document (PDF)
 PURL
 http://purl.flvc.org/ucf/fd/CFE0006885
 Title
 Comparing the Variational Approximation and Exact Solutions of the Straight Unstaggered and Twisted Staggered Discrete Solitons.
 Creator

Marulanda, Daniel, Kaup, David, Moore, Brian, Vajravelu, Kuppalapalle, University of Central Florida
 Abstract / Description

Discrete nonlinear Schr(&)#246;dinger equations (DNSL) have been used to provide models of a variety of physical settings. An application of DNSL equations is provided by BoseEinstein condensates which are trapped in deep opticallattice potentials. These potentials effectively splits the condensate into a set of droplets held in local potential wells, which are linearly coupled across the potential barriers between them [3]. In previous works, DNLS systems have also been used for symmetric...
Show moreDiscrete nonlinear Schr(&)#246;dinger equations (DNSL) have been used to provide models of a variety of physical settings. An application of DNSL equations is provided by BoseEinstein condensates which are trapped in deep opticallattice potentials. These potentials effectively splits the condensate into a set of droplets held in local potential wells, which are linearly coupled across the potential barriers between them [3]. In previous works, DNLS systems have also been used for symmetric onsitecentered solitons [11]. A few works have constructed different discrete solitons via the variational approximation (VA) and have explored their regions for their solutions [11, 12]. Exact solutions for straight unstaggeredtwisted staggered (SUTS) discrete solitons have been found using the shooting method [12].In this work, we will use Newton's method, which converges to the exact solutions of SUTS discrete solitons. The VA has been used to create starting points. There are two distinct types of solutions for the soliton's waveform: SUTS discrete solitons and straight unstaggered discrete solitons, where the twisted component is zero in the latter soliton. We determine the range of parameters for which each type of solution exists. We also compare the regions for the VA solutions and the exact solutions in certain selected cases. Then, we graphically and numerically compare examples of the VA solutions with their corresponding exact solutions. We also find that the VA provides reasonable approximations to the exact solutions.
Show less  Date Issued
 2016
 Identifier
 CFE0006350, ucf:51570
 Format
 Document (PDF)
 PURL
 http://purl.flvc.org/ucf/fd/CFE0006350
 Title
 Particle Manipulation Via Optical Forces and Engineering SoftMatter Systems With Tunable Nonlinearities.
 Creator

Fardad, Shima, Christodoulides, Demetrios, Hagan, David, Amezcua Correa, Rodrigo, Likamwa, Patrick, Chen, Zhigang, University of Central Florida
 Abstract / Description

One of the most intriguing properties of lightmatter interaction is the ability of an electromagnetic field to exert mechanical forces on polarizable objects. This phenomenon is a direct consequence of the fact that light carries momentum, which in turn can be transferred to matter. Mediated by scattering, this interaction usually manifests itself as a (")pushing force(") in the direction of beam propagation. However, it is possible to judiciously engineer these optical forces, either by...
Show moreOne of the most intriguing properties of lightmatter interaction is the ability of an electromagnetic field to exert mechanical forces on polarizable objects. This phenomenon is a direct consequence of the fact that light carries momentum, which in turn can be transferred to matter. Mediated by scattering, this interaction usually manifests itself as a (")pushing force(") in the direction of beam propagation. However, it is possible to judiciously engineer these optical forces, either by tailoring particle polarizability, and/or by structuring the incident light field. As a simple example, a tightly focused laser beam demonstrates strong gradient forces, which may attract and even trap particles with positive polarizability in the focal volume. The opposite occurs in the regime of negative polarizability, where particles are expelled from the regions of highest intensity. Based on this fundamental principle, one can actively shape the beam using spatial light modulators to manipulate individual objects as well as ensembles of particles suspended in a liquid. In the latter case, a modulation of the local particle concentration is associated with changes of the effective refractive index. The result is an artificial nonlinear medium, whose Kerrtype response can be readily tuned by the parameters of its constituent particles.In the course of this work, we introduce a new class of synthetic colloidal suspensions exhibiting negative polarizabilities, and observe for the first time robust propagation and enhanced transmission of selftrapped light over long distances. Such light penetration in strongly scattering environments is enabled by the interplay between optical forces and selfactivated transparency effects. We explore various approaches to the design of negativepolarizability arrangements, including purely dielectric as well as metallic and hybrid nanoparticles. In particular, we find that plasmonic resonances allow for extremely high and spectrally tunable polarizabilities, leading to unique nonlinear lightmatter interactions. Here, for the first time we were able to observe plasmonic resonant solitons over more than 25 diffraction lengths, in colloidal nanosuspensions.
Show less  Date Issued
 2014
 Identifier
 CFE0005610, ucf:50239
 Format
 Document (PDF)
 PURL
 http://purl.flvc.org/ucf/fd/CFE0005610
 Title
 StructureProperty Relationship of the TwoPhoton Circular Dichroism of Compounds with Axial and Helical Chirality.
 Creator

Diaz, Carlos, Hernandez, Florencio, Uribe Romo, Fernando, Kuebler, Stephen, Masunov, Artem, Del Barco, Enrique, University of Central Florida
 Abstract / Description

Back in 1894 Lord Kelvin coined the term (")chiral(") in order to refer to molecules whose mirror images were not superimposable with themselves. Over the years, research has demonstrated the important role that chiral molecules play in life, chemistry, and biology as well as their importance in the development of new drugs and technologies.The efforts to understand chiral systems have been mainly driven by spectroscopic methods that leverage on the opposite responses that enantiomers have to...
Show moreBack in 1894 Lord Kelvin coined the term (")chiral(") in order to refer to molecules whose mirror images were not superimposable with themselves. Over the years, research has demonstrated the important role that chiral molecules play in life, chemistry, and biology as well as their importance in the development of new drugs and technologies.The efforts to understand chiral systems have been mainly driven by spectroscopic methods that leverage on the opposite responses that enantiomers have to linear or circularly polarized light of both handedness. More specifically, Electronic Circular Dichroism (ECD) which measures the differences in linear absorption of left and right circularly polarized light has been the method par excellence for the spectroscopic characterization of chiral compounds. Unfortunately, the fact that ECD is based on linear absorption severely limits the use of this method in the near to far UV region. This is mainly due to the interferences generated by the strong linear absorption of common organic solvents and buffers in this portion of the light spectrum. Nevertheless, the fact remains that many chiral biomolecules of interest related to deceases like Alzheimer and Parkinson, exhibit most of their linear absorption in the near to far UV region where ECD cannot be employed for their study. Therefore, it has become an urgent necessity to develop spectroscopic methods to study chiral molecules that can circumvent the limitations of ECD at shorter wavelengths. In order to overcome the existent limitations in linear chiral spectroscopy, the nonlinear equivalent of ECD arises as a promising alternative, i.e. TwoPhoton Circular Dichroism (TPCD). Although, this phenomenon was theoretically predicted in 1975, it was not until 2008, with the introduction of the doubleL scan, that a reliable and versatile method for the measurement of TPCD was introduced. The high sensitivity of this method is based on the use of (")twin(") pulses that allow accounting for fluctuations in the excitation source that prevented the experimental realization of the measurement. The first measurement of a full TPCD spectrum was performed on BINOL enantiomers and the results were supported and discussed with the help of theoretical calculations. After that seminal work, we embarked in expanding the understanding of the structureproperty relationship of TPCD by performing, systematically, a series of theoreticalexperimental studies in chiral biaryl derivatives and compounds with helical chirality.In Chapter 2 we present the theoreticalexperimental study of the effect of the ?electron delocalization curvature on the TPCD of molecules with axial chirality. The targeted molecules for this part of our investigation were SBINOL, SVANOL, and SVAPOL. Our findings revealed that an increase in the TPCD signal, within this series of compounds, was related to the curvature of the ?()electron delocalization. The contributions of the different transition moments to the twophoton rotatory strength support our outcomes. Then, in Chapter 3 we introduce the development of the FragmentRecombination Approach (FRA) for the calculation of the TPCD spectra of large molecules. This simple but powerful method is based on the additivity of the TPCD signal, and is subject to a strict conditional fragmentation approach. FRATPCD is demonstrated, theoretically, in two hypothetical molecular systems from the biaryl derivatives family. Afterward, in Chapter 4 we show the first experimental demonstration of FRATPCD through the conformational analysis of an axiallychiral Salen ligand in solution (AXF155). The FRATPCD spectra calculated for the different isomers of AXF155 allowed narrowing the number of possible isomers of this complex molecule in THF solution to only two. This represents a significant improvement from previously reported results using ECD. Subsequently, in Chapter 5 we present the study of the effect of intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) in SBINAP, an axially dissymmetric diphosphine ligand with strong ICT. The evaluation of the performance of two different exchangecorrelation functional (XCF) confirmed that in order to properly predict the theoretical TPCD spectrum of a molecule exhibiting strong ICT, it is required to use an XCF such as CAMB3LYP. In addition, our findings revealed the importance of considering an adequate number of excited states in order to be able to fully reproduce the experimental TPCD spectrum, thus avoiding wrong assignments of theoretical transitions to experimental spectral features. Finally, and expanding on our previous study, in Chapter 6 we investigated the effect of the nature of ICT on two hexahelicene derivatives. Our investigation demonstrated that the TPCD signal of chiral molecules with strong ICT does not only depend on the strength of this effect but on its nature, i.e. extension of the ?()electronic delocalization increasing beyond (EXOICT) or within (ENDOICT) the helicene core. In summary, with the results presented in this thesis we closed a first loop in the understanding of the structureproperty relationship of TPCD. In the future, we expect to deepen in our knowledge of the structureproperty relationship of this phenomenon by studying further helicene derivatives with donoracceptor motif, and through the application of FRATPCD to the conformational analysis of amino acids in peptides. We foresee numerous applications of TPCD for the study of optically active molecules with implications in biology, medicine, and the drug and food industry, and applications in nanotechnology, asymmetric catalysis and photonics.
Show less  Date Issued
 2015
 Identifier
 CFE0005787, ucf:50067
 Format
 Document (PDF)
 PURL
 http://purl.flvc.org/ucf/fd/CFE0005787
 Title
 Bioinspired, Varying Manifold Based Method with Enhanced Initial Guess Strategies for Single Vehicle's Optimal Trajectory Planning.
 Creator

Li, Ni, Xu, Yunjun, Lin, KuoChi, Bai, Yuanli, Behal, Aman, University of Central Florida
 Abstract / Description

Trajectory planning is important in many applications involving unmanned aerial vehicles, underwater vehicles, spacecraft, and industrial manipulators. It is still a challenging task to rapidly find an optimal trajectory while taking into account dynamic and environmental constraints. In this dissertation, a unified, varying manifold based optimal trajectory planning method inspired by several predatorprey relationships is investigated to tackle this challenging problem. Biological species,...
Show moreTrajectory planning is important in many applications involving unmanned aerial vehicles, underwater vehicles, spacecraft, and industrial manipulators. It is still a challenging task to rapidly find an optimal trajectory while taking into account dynamic and environmental constraints. In this dissertation, a unified, varying manifold based optimal trajectory planning method inspired by several predatorprey relationships is investigated to tackle this challenging problem. Biological species, such as hoverflies, ants, and bats, have developed many efficient hunting strategies. It is hypothesized that these types of predators only move along paths in a carefully selected manifold based on the prey's motion in some of their hunting activities. Inspired by these studies, the predatorprey relationships are organized into a unified form and incorporated into the trajectory optimization formulation, which can reduce the computational cost in solving nonlinear constrained optimal trajectory planning problems. Specifically, three motion strategies are studied in this dissertation: motion camouflage, constant absolute target direction, and local pursuit. Necessary conditions based on the speed and obstacle avoidance constraints are derived. Strategies to tune initial guesses are proposed based on these necessary conditions to enhance the convergence rate and reduce the computational cost of the motion camouflage inspired strategy. The following simulations have been conducted to show the advantages of the proposed methods: a supersonic aircraft minimumtimetoclimb problem, a ground robot obstacle avoidance problem, and a micro air vehicle minimum time trajectory problem. The results show that the proposed methods can find the optimal solution with higher success rate and faster convergent speed as compared with some other popular methods. Among these three motion strategies, the method based on the local pursuit strategy has a relatively higher success rate when compared to the other two.In addition, the optimal trajectory planning method is embedded into a receding horizon framework with unknown parameters updated in each planning horizon using an Extended Kalman Filter.
Show less  Date Issued
 2013
 Identifier
 CFE0005023, ucf:49986
 Format
 Document (PDF)
 PURL
 http://purl.flvc.org/ucf/fd/CFE0005023
 Title
 SINBAD AUTOMATION OF SCIENTIFIC PROCESS: FROM HIDDEN FACTOR ANALYSIS TO THEORY SYNTHESIS.
 Creator

KURSUN, OLCAY, Favorov, Oleg V., University of Central Florida
 Abstract / Description

Modern science is turning to progressively more complex and datarich subjects, which challenges the existing methods of data analysis and interpretation. Consequently, there is a pressing need for development of ever more powerful methods of extracting order from complex data and for automation of all steps of the scientific process. Virtual Scientist is a set of computational procedures that automate the method of inductive inference to derive a theory from observational data dominated by...
Show moreModern science is turning to progressively more complex and datarich subjects, which challenges the existing methods of data analysis and interpretation. Consequently, there is a pressing need for development of ever more powerful methods of extracting order from complex data and for automation of all steps of the scientific process. Virtual Scientist is a set of computational procedures that automate the method of inductive inference to derive a theory from observational data dominated by nonlinear regularities. The procedures utilize SINBAD – a novel computational method of nonlinear factor analysis that is based on the principle of maximization of mutual information among nonoverlapping sources (Imax), yielding higherorder features of the data that reveal hidden causal factors controlling the observed phenomena. One major advantage of this approach is that it is not dependent on a particular choice of learning algorithm to use for the computations. The procedures build a theory of the studied subject by finding inferentially useful hidden factors, learning interdependencies among its variables, reconstructing its functional organization, and describing it by a concise graph of inferential relations among its variables. The graph is a quantitative model of the studied subject, capable of performing elaborate deductive inferences and explaining behaviors of the observed variables by behaviors of other such variables and discovered hidden factors. The set of Virtual Scientist procedures is a powerful analytical and theorybuilding tool designed to be used in research of complex scientific problems characterized by multivariate and nonlinear relations.
Show less  Date Issued
 2004
 Identifier
 CFE0000043, ucf:46124
 Format
 Document (PDF)
 PURL
 http://purl.flvc.org/ucf/fd/CFE0000043
 Title
 Nonlinear Dynamics in Multimode Optical Fibers.
 Creator

Eftekhar, Mohammad Amin, Christodoulides, Demetrios, Amezcua Correa, Rodrigo, Li, Guifang, Kaup, David, University of Central Florida
 Abstract / Description

Multimode optical fibers have recently reemerged as a viable platform for addressing a number of longstanding issues associated with information bandwidth requirements and powerhandling capabilities. The complex nature of heavily multimoded systems can be effectively exploited to observe altogether novel physical effects arising from spatiotemporal and intermodal linear and nonlinear processes. Here, we have studied nonlinear dynamics in multimode optical fibers (MMFs) in both the normal...
Show moreMultimode optical fibers have recently reemerged as a viable platform for addressing a number of longstanding issues associated with information bandwidth requirements and powerhandling capabilities. The complex nature of heavily multimoded systems can be effectively exploited to observe altogether novel physical effects arising from spatiotemporal and intermodal linear and nonlinear processes. Here, we have studied nonlinear dynamics in multimode optical fibers (MMFs) in both the normal and anomalous dispersion regimes. In the anomalous dispersion regime, the nonlinearity leads to a formation of spatiotemporal 3D solitons. Unlike in singlemode fibers, these solitons are not unique and their properties can be modified through the additional degrees of freedom offered by these multimoded settings. In addition, soliton related processes such as soliton fission and dispersive wave generation will be also drastically altered in such multimode systems. Our theoretical work unravels some of the complexities of the underlying dynamics and helps us better understand these effects. The nonlinear dynamics in such multimode systems can be accelerated through a judicious fiber design. A cancelation of Raman selffrequency shifts and Blueshifting multimode solitons were observed in such settings as a result of an acceleration of intermodal oscillations. Spatiotemporal instabilities in parabolicindex multimode fibers will also be discussed. In the normal dispersion regime, this effect can be exploited to generate an ultrabroad and uniform supercontinuum that extends more than 2.5 octaves. To do so, the unstable spectral regions are pushed away from the pump, thus sweeping the entire spectrum. Multimode parabolic pulses were also predicted and observed in passive normally dispersive tapered MMFs. These setting can obviate the harsh bandwidth limitation present in singlemode system imposed by gain medium and be effectively used for realizing high power multimode fiber lasers. Finally, an instant and efficient secondharmonic generation was observed in the multimode optical fibers. Through a modification of initial conditions, the efficiency of this process could be enhanced to a record high of %6.5.
Show less  Date Issued
 2018
 Identifier
 CFE0007399, ucf:52063
 Format
 Document (PDF)
 PURL
 http://purl.flvc.org/ucf/fd/CFE0007399
 Title
 EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL STUDY OF THE OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF SEMICONDUCTOR QUANTUM DOTS.
 Creator

Nootz, Gero, Cuenya , Beatriz, University of Central Florida
 Abstract / Description

The aim of this dissertation is to gain a better understanding of the unique electronic structure of lead salt quantum dots (QDs) and its influences on the nonlinear optical (NLO) properties as well as the time dynamics of the photogenerated charge carriers. A variety of optical techniques such as Zscan, twophoton excited fluorescence and timeresolved pump probe spectroscopy are used to measure these properties. The onephoton as well as the degenerate and nondegenerate twophoton...
Show moreThe aim of this dissertation is to gain a better understanding of the unique electronic structure of lead salt quantum dots (QDs) and its influences on the nonlinear optical (NLO) properties as well as the time dynamics of the photogenerated charge carriers. A variety of optical techniques such as Zscan, twophoton excited fluorescence and timeresolved pump probe spectroscopy are used to measure these properties. The onephoton as well as the degenerate and nondegenerate twophoton absorption (2PA) spectra are measured and the electronic wave functions from a fourband envelope function formalism are used to model the results. We observe local maxima in the 2PA spectra for QD samples of many different sizes at energies where only 1PA is predicted by the model. This is similar to the previously measured transitions in the 1PA spectra which are not predicted by the model but accrue at the energies of the twophoton allowed transitions. Most importantly we observe 2PA peaks for all samples at the energy of the first onephoton allowed transition. This result can only be understood in terms of symmetry breaking and therefore is strong evidence that other transitions, not predicted by the model if the selection rules are left intact, also have the origin in the lifted spatial symmetry of the wave functions. On the other hand, the uniquely symmetric eigenenergies of these quantumconfined energy states in the conduction and valance bands explain the observed trend toward larger twophoton crosssections as the quantum confinement is increased in smaller QDs. Moreover, this unique feature is shown to reduce the possible relaxation channels for photoexcited carriers, which is confirmed experimentally by the reduced carrier relaxation rate as compared to CdSe QDs which lack this symmetry. Carrier multiplication (CM), a process in which several electrons are excited by the absorption of a single photon is studied in PbS QDs. We show that for PbS QDs with radius smaller than 2.5 nm the parameters of CM get very close to the theoretical optimum. Nextgeneration solar cells operating under these ideal conditions could potentially have conversion efficiency of up to 42%. This compares favorably to the 30% efficiency limit of a single junction silicon solar cell.
Show less  Date Issued
 2010
 Identifier
 CFE0003396, ucf:48413
 Format
 Document (PDF)
 PURL
 http://purl.flvc.org/ucf/fd/CFE0003396
 Title
 Batch and Online Implicit Weighted Gaussian Processes for Robust Novelty Detection.
 Creator

Ramirez Padron, Ruben, Gonzalez, Avelino, Georgiopoulos, Michael, Stanley, Kenneth, Mederos, Boris, Wang, ChungChing, University of Central Florida
 Abstract / Description

This dissertation aims mainly at obtaining robust variants of Gaussian processes (GPs) that do not require using nonGaussian likelihoods to compensate for outliers in the training data. Bayesian kernel methods, and in particular GPs, have been used to solve a variety of machine learning problems, equating or exceeding the performance of other successful techniques. That is the case of a recently proposed approach to GPbased novelty detection that uses standard GPs (i.e. GPs employing...
Show moreThis dissertation aims mainly at obtaining robust variants of Gaussian processes (GPs) that do not require using nonGaussian likelihoods to compensate for outliers in the training data. Bayesian kernel methods, and in particular GPs, have been used to solve a variety of machine learning problems, equating or exceeding the performance of other successful techniques. That is the case of a recently proposed approach to GPbased novelty detection that uses standard GPs (i.e. GPs employing Gaussian likelihoods). However, standard GPs are sensitive to outliers in training data, and this limitation carries over to GPbased novelty detection. This limitation has been typically addressed by using robust nonGaussian likelihoods. However, nonGaussian likelihoods lead to analytically intractable inferences, which require using approximation techniques that are typically complex and computationally expensive. Inspired by the use of weights in quasirobust statistics, this work introduces a particular type of weight functions, called here data weighers, in order to obtain robust GPs that do not require approximation techniques and retain the simplicity of standard GPs. This work proposes implicit weighted variants of batch GP, online GP, and sparse online GP (SOGP) that employ weighted Gaussian likelihoods. Mathematical expressions for calculating the posterior implicit weighted GPs are derived in this work. In our experiments, novelty detection based on our weighted batch GPs consistently and significantly outperformed standard batch GPbased novelty detection whenever data was contaminated with outliers. Additionally, our experiments show that novelty detection based on online GPs can perform similarly to batch GPbased novelty detection. Membership scores previously introduced by other authors are also compared in our experiments.
Show less  Date Issued
 2015
 Identifier
 CFE0005869, ucf:50858
 Format
 Document (PDF)
 PURL
 http://purl.flvc.org/ucf/fd/CFE0005869
 Title
 Modeling rogue waves in deep water.
 Creator

Strawn, Maria, Schober, Constance, Moore, Brian, Choudhury, Sudipto, Calini, Annalisa, University of Central Florida
 Abstract / Description

The evolution of surface waves in deep water is governed by the nonlinear Schrodinger (NLS) equation. Spatially periodic breathers (SPBs) and rational solutions of the NLS equation are used as typical models for rogue waves since they exhibit many features of rogue waves. A major component of the dissertation is the stability of solutions of the NLS equation.We address the stability of the rational solutions of the NLS equation used to model rogue waves using squared eigenfunctions of the...
Show moreThe evolution of surface waves in deep water is governed by the nonlinear Schrodinger (NLS) equation. Spatially periodic breathers (SPBs) and rational solutions of the NLS equation are used as typical models for rogue waves since they exhibit many features of rogue waves. A major component of the dissertation is the stability of solutions of the NLS equation.We address the stability of the rational solutions of the NLS equation used to model rogue waves using squared eigenfunctions of the associated Lax Pair. This allows us to contrast to the existing results for SPBs. The stability of the constant amplitude solution of the higher order NLS (HONLS) equation with additional novel perturbations, relevant toour subsequent study on downshifting, is considered next. In addition to the higher order perturbations, we include linear effects and nonlinear damping of the mean flow to the HONLS equation.In addition to stability, we discuss rogue waves and downshifting. Permanent downshifting occurs when energy if permanently transferred from the initially dominant mode to lower modes and is observed in physical experiments and field studies of deep water waves. Although these experimental observations are well documented, neither NLS nor HONLS equations describe this behavior. Nonlinear damping of the mean flow, included in our studies, is shown to model permanent downshifting. We examine the interaction of rogue waves and downshifting in a sea state with both nonlinear and linear effects. We show that there are no rogue waves after permanent downshifting. Analytical and numerical analysis are provided to support the findings.
Show less  Date Issued
 2016
 Identifier
 CFE0006402, ucf:51476
 Format
 Document (PDF)
 PURL
 http://purl.flvc.org/ucf/fd/CFE0006402
 Title
 Biomechanical Factors Influencing Treatment of Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip (DDH) with the Pavlik Harness.
 Creator

Ardila, Orlando, Kassab, Alain, Moslehy, Faissal, Divo, Eduardo, University of Central Florida
 Abstract / Description

Biomechanical factors influencing the reduction of dislocated hips with the Pavlik harness in patients of Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip (DDH) were studied using a simplified threedimensional computer model simulating hip reduction dynamics in (1) subluxated, and (2) fully dislocated hip joints. The CTscans of a 6 monthold female infant were used to measure the geometrical features of the hip joint including acetabular and femoral head diameter, acetabular depth, and geometry of the...
Show moreBiomechanical factors influencing the reduction of dislocated hips with the Pavlik harness in patients of Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip (DDH) were studied using a simplified threedimensional computer model simulating hip reduction dynamics in (1) subluxated, and (2) fully dislocated hip joints. The CTscans of a 6 monthold female infant were used to measure the geometrical features of the hip joint including acetabular and femoral head diameter, acetabular depth, and geometry of the acetabular labrum, using the medical segmentation software Mimics. The lower extremity was modeled by three segments: thigh, leg, and foot. The mass and the location of the center of gravity of each segment were calculated using anthropometry, based on the total body mass of a 6month old female infant at the 50th lengthforage percentile. A calibrated nonlinear stressstrain model was used to simulate muscle responses. The simplified 3D model consists of the pubis, ischium, acetabulum with labrum, and femoral head, neck, and shaft. It is capable of simulating dislocated as well as reduced hips in abduction and flexion.Five hip adductor muscles were identified as key mediators of DDH prognosis, and the nondimensional force contribution of each in the direction necessary to achieve concentric hip reductions was determined. Results point to the adductor muscles as mediators of subluxated hip reductions, as their mechanical action is a function of the degree of hip dislocation. For subluxated hips in abduction and flexion, the Pectineus, Adductor Brevis, Adductor Longus, and proximal Adductor Magnus muscles contribute positively to reduction, while the rest of the Adductor Magnus contributes negatively. In full dislocations all muscles contribute detrimentally to reduction, elucidating the need for traction to reduce Graf IV type dislocations. Reduction of dysplastic hips was found to occur in two distinct phases: (a) release phase and (b) reduction phase.To expand the range of DDHrelated problems that can be studied, an improved threedimensional anatomical computer model was generated by combining CTscan and muscle positional data belonging to four human subjects. This model consists of the hip bone and femora of a 10week old female infant. It was segmented to encompass the distinct cartilaginous regions of infant anatomy, as well as the different regions of cortical and cancellous bone; these properties were retrieved from the literature. This engineering computer model of an infant anatomy is being employed for (1) the development of a complete finite element and dynamics computer model for simulations of hip dysplasia reductions using novel treatment approaches, (2) the determination of a path of least resistance in reductions of hip dysplasia based on a minimum potential energy approach, (3) the study of the mechanics of hyperflexion of the hip as alternative treatment for latepresenting cases of hip dysplasia, and (4) a comprehensive investigation of the effects of femoral anteversion angle (AV) variations in reductions of hip dysplasia. This thesis thus reports on an interdisciplinary effort between orthopedic surgeons and mechanical engineers to apply engineering fundamentals to solve medical problems. The results of this research are clinically relevant in pediatric orthopaedics.
Show less  Date Issued
 2013
 Identifier
 CFE0004646, ucf:49907
 Format
 Document (PDF)
 PURL
 http://purl.flvc.org/ucf/fd/CFE0004646
 Title
 NONLINEAR OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF ORGANIC CHROMOPHORES CALCULATED WITHIN TIME DEPENDENT DENSITY FUNCTIONAL THEORY.
 Creator

Tafur, Sergio, Kokoouline, Viatcheslav, University of Central Florida
 Abstract / Description

Time Dependent Density Functional Theory offers a good accuracy/computational cost ratio among different methods used to predict the electronic structure for molecules of practical interest. The Coupled Electronic Oscillator (CEO) formalism was recently shown to accurately predict Nonlinear Optical (NLO) properties of organic chromophores when combined with Time Dependent Density Functional Theory. Unfortunately, CEO does not lend itself easily to interpretation of the structure activity...
Show moreTime Dependent Density Functional Theory offers a good accuracy/computational cost ratio among different methods used to predict the electronic structure for molecules of practical interest. The Coupled Electronic Oscillator (CEO) formalism was recently shown to accurately predict Nonlinear Optical (NLO) properties of organic chromophores when combined with Time Dependent Density Functional Theory. Unfortunately, CEO does not lend itself easily to interpretation of the structure activity relationships of chromophores. On the other hand, the Sum Over States formalism in combination with semiempirical wavefunction methods has been used in the past for the design of simplified essential states models. These models can be applied to optimization of NLO properties of interest for applications. Unfortunately, TDDFT can not be combined directly with SOS because statetostate transition dipoles are not defined in the linear response TD approach. In this work, a second order CEO approach to TDDFT is simplified so that properties of double excited states and statetostate transition dipoles may be expressed through the combination of linear response properties. This approach is termed the a posteriori TammDancoff approximation (ATDA), and validated against highlevel wavefunction theory methods. Sum over States (SOS) and related TwoPhoton Transition Matrix formalism are then used to predict TwoPhoton Absorption (2PA) profiles and anisotropy, as well as Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) properties. Numerical results for several conjugated molecules are in excellent agreement with CEO and finite field calculations, and reproduce experimental measurements well.
Show less  Date Issued
 2007
 Identifier
 CFE0001853, ucf:47372
 Format
 Document (PDF)
 PURL
 http://purl.flvc.org/ucf/fd/CFE0001853
 Title
 MODELING SCENES AND HUMAN ACTIVITIES IN VIDEOS.
 Creator

Basharat, Arslan, Shah, Mubarak, University of Central Florida
 Abstract / Description

In this dissertation, we address the problem of understanding human activities in videos by developing a twopronged approach: coarse level modeling of scene activities and fine level modeling of individual activities. At the coarse level, where the resolution of the video is low, we rely on person tracks. At the fine level, richer features are available to identify different parts of the human body, therefore we rely on the body joint tracks. There are three main goals of this dissertation: ...
Show moreIn this dissertation, we address the problem of understanding human activities in videos by developing a twopronged approach: coarse level modeling of scene activities and fine level modeling of individual activities. At the coarse level, where the resolution of the video is low, we rely on person tracks. At the fine level, richer features are available to identify different parts of the human body, therefore we rely on the body joint tracks. There are three main goals of this dissertation: (1) identify unusual activities at the coarse level, (2) recognize different activities at the fine level, and (3) predict the behavior for synthesizing and tracking activities at the fine level. The first goal is addressed by modeling activities at the coarse level through two novel and complementing approaches. The first approach learns the behavior of individuals by capturing the patterns of motion and size of objects in a compact model. Probability density function (pdf) at each pixel is modeled as a multivariate Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM), which is learnt using unsupervised expectation maximization (EM). In contrast, the second approach learns the interaction of object pairs concurrently present in the scene. This can be useful in detecting more complex activities than those modeled by the first approach. We use a 14dimensional Kernel Density Estimation (KDE) that captures motion and size of concurrently tracked objects. The proposed models have been successfully used to automatically detect activities like unusual person dropoff and pickup, jaywalking, etc. The second and third goals of modeling human activities at the fine level are addressed by employing concepts from theory of chaos and nonlinear dynamical systems. We show that the proposed model is useful for recognition and prediction of the underlying dynamics of human activities. We treat the trajectories of human body joints as the observed time series generated from an underlying dynamical system. The observed data is used to reconstruct a phase (or state) space of appropriate dimension by employing the delayembedding technique. This transformation is performed without assuming an exact model of the underlying dynamics and provides a characteristic representation that will prove to be vital for recognition and prediction tasks. For recognition, properties of phase space are captured in terms of dynamical and metric invariants, which include the Lyapunov exponent, correlation integral, and correlation dimension. A composite feature vector containing these invariants represents the action and will be used for classification. For prediction, kernel regression is used in the phase space to compute predictions with a specified initial condition. This approach has the advantage of modeling dynamics without making any assumptions about the exact form (polynomial, radial basis, etc.) of the mapping function. We demonstrate the utility of these predictions for human activity synthesis and tracking.
Show less  Date Issued
 2009
 Identifier
 CFE0002897, ucf:48042
 Format
 Document (PDF)
 PURL
 http://purl.flvc.org/ucf/fd/CFE0002897
 Title
 UltraEfficient Cascaded BuckBoost Converter.
 Creator

Ashok Pise, Anirudh, Batarseh, Issa, Mikhael, Wasfy, Sun, Wei, Kutkut, Nasser, University of Central Florida
 Abstract / Description

This thesis presents various techniques to achieve ultrahighefficiency for CascadedBuckBoost converter. A rigorous loss model with component non linearity is developed and validated experimentally. An adaptiveswitchingfrequency control is discussed to optimize weighted efficiency. Some softswitching techniques are discussed. A lowprofile planarnanocrystalline inductor is developed and various design aspects of core and copper design are discussed. Finiteelementmethod is used to...
Show moreThis thesis presents various techniques to achieve ultrahighefficiency for CascadedBuckBoost converter. A rigorous loss model with component non linearity is developed and validated experimentally. An adaptiveswitchingfrequency control is discussed to optimize weighted efficiency. Some softswitching techniques are discussed. A lowprofile planarnanocrystalline inductor is developed and various design aspects of core and copper design are discussed. Finiteelementmethod is used to examine and visualize the inductor design. By implementing the above, a peak efficiency of over 99.2 % is achieved with a power density of 6 kW/L and a maximum profile height of 7 mm is reported. This converter finds many applications because of its versatility: allowing bidirectional power flow and the ability to stepup or stepdown voltages in either direction.
Show less  Date Issued
 2017
 Identifier
 CFE0007277, ucf:52181
 Format
 Document (PDF)
 PURL
 http://purl.flvc.org/ucf/fd/CFE0007277
 Title
 Spectral properties of the finite Hilbert transform on two adjacent intervals via the method of RiemannHilbert problem.
 Creator

Blackstone, Elliot, Tovbis, Alexander, Katsevich, Alexander, Tamasan, Alexandru, Pang, Sean, University of Central Florida
 Abstract / Description

In this dissertation, we study a selfadjoint integral operator $\hat{K}$ which is defined in terms of finite Hilbert transforms on two adjacent intervals. These types of transforms arise when one studies the interior problem of tomography. The operator $\hat{K}$ possesses a socalled ``integrable kernel'' and it is known that the spectral properties of $\hat{K}$ are intimately related to a $2\times2$ matrix function $\Gamma(z;\lambda)$ which is the solution to a particular RiemannHilbert...
Show moreIn this dissertation, we study a selfadjoint integral operator $\hat{K}$ which is defined in terms of finite Hilbert transforms on two adjacent intervals. These types of transforms arise when one studies the interior problem of tomography. The operator $\hat{K}$ possesses a socalled ``integrable kernel'' and it is known that the spectral properties of $\hat{K}$ are intimately related to a $2\times2$ matrix function $\Gamma(z;\lambda)$ which is the solution to a particular RiemannHilbert problem (in the $z$ plane). We express $\Gamma(z;\lambda)$ explicitly in terms of hypergeometric functions and find the small $\lambda$ asymptotics of $\Gamma(z;\lambda)$. This asymptotic analysis is necessary for the spectral analysis of the finite Hilbert transform on multiple adjacent intervals. We show that $\Gamma(z;\lambda)$ also has a jump in the $\lambda$ plane which allows us to compute the jump of the resolvent of $\hat{K}$. This jump is an important step in showing that the finite Hilbert transforms has simple and purely absolutely continuous spectrum. The well known spectral theory now allows us to construct unitary operators which diagonalize the finite Hilbert transforms. Lastly, we mention some future directions which include the many interval scenario and a bispectral property of $\hat{K}$.
Show less  Date Issued
 2019
 Identifier
 CFE0007602, ucf:52527
 Format
 Document (PDF)
 PURL
 http://purl.flvc.org/ucf/fd/CFE0007602
 Title
 SemiAnalytical Solutions of Nonlinear Differential Equations Arising in Science and Engineering.
 Creator

Dewasurendra, Mangalagama, Vajravelu, Kuppalapalle, Mohapatra, Ram, Rollins, David, Kumar, Ranganathan, University of Central Florida
 Abstract / Description

Systems of coupled nonlinear differential equations arise in science and engineering are inherently nonlinear and difficult to find exact solutions. However, in the late nineties, Liao introduced Optimal Homotopy Analysis Method (OHAM), and it allows us to construct accurate approximations to the systems of coupled nonlinear differential equations.The drawback of OHAM is, we must first choose the proper auxiliary linear operator and then solve the linear higherorder deformation equation by...
Show moreSystems of coupled nonlinear differential equations arise in science and engineering are inherently nonlinear and difficult to find exact solutions. However, in the late nineties, Liao introduced Optimal Homotopy Analysis Method (OHAM), and it allows us to construct accurate approximations to the systems of coupled nonlinear differential equations.The drawback of OHAM is, we must first choose the proper auxiliary linear operator and then solve the linear higherorder deformation equation by spending lots of CPU time. However, in the latest innovation of Liao's " Method of Directly Defining inverse Mapping (MDDiM)" which he introduced to solve a single nonlinear ordinary differential equation has great freedom to define the inverse linear map directly. In this way, one can solve higher order deformation equations quickly, and it is unnecessary to calculate an inverse linear operator.Our primary goal is to extend MDDiM to solve systems of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations. In the first chapter, we will introduce MDDiM and briefly discuss the advantages of MDDiM Over OHAM. In the second chapter, we will study a nonlinear coupled system using OHAM. Next three chapters, we will apply MDDiM to coupled nonlinear systems arise in mechanical engineering to study fluid flow and heat transfer. In chapter six we will apply this novel method to study coupled nonlinear systems in epidemiology to investigate how diseases spread throughout time. In the last chapter, we will discuss our conclusions and will propose some future work. Another main focus is to compare MDDiM with OHAM.
Show less  Date Issued
 2019
 Identifier
 CFE0007624, ucf:52551
 Format
 Document (PDF)
 PURL
 http://purl.flvc.org/ucf/fd/CFE0007624