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 Title
 Absorptive and Refractive Optical Nonlinearities in Organic Molecules and Semiconductors.
 Creator

Peceli, Davorin, Hagan, David, Vanstryland, Eric, Christodoulides, Demetrios, Belfield, Kevin, University of Central Florida
 Abstract / Description

The main purpose of this dissertation to investigate photophysical properties, third order nonlinearity and free carrier absorption and refraction in organic materials and semiconductors. Special emphasis of this dissertation is on characterization techniques of molecules with enhanced intersystem crossing rate and study of different approaches of increasing triplet quantum yield in organic molecules. Both linear and nonlinear characterization methods are described. Linear spectroscopic...
Show moreThe main purpose of this dissertation to investigate photophysical properties, third order nonlinearity and free carrier absorption and refraction in organic materials and semiconductors. Special emphasis of this dissertation is on characterization techniques of molecules with enhanced intersystem crossing rate and study of different approaches of increasing triplet quantum yield in organic molecules. Both linear and nonlinear characterization methods are described. Linear spectroscopic characterization includes absorption, fluorescence, quantum yield, anisotropy, and singletoxygen generation measurements. Nonlinear characterization, performed by picosecond and femtosecond laser systems (single and double pumpprobe and Zscan measurements), includes measurements of the triplet quantum yields, excitedstate absorption, twophoton absorption, nonlinear refraction and singlet and tripletstate lifetimes.The double pumpprobe technique is a variant of the standard pumpprobe method but uses two pumps instead of one to create two sets of initial conditions for solving the rate equations allowing a unique determination of singlet and tripletstate absorption parameters and transition rates. The advantages and limitations of the the double pumpprobe technique are investigated theoretically and experimentally, and the influences of several experimental parameters on its accuracy are determined. The accuracy with which the double pumpprobe technique determines the tripletstate parameters improves when the fraction of the population in the triplet state relative to the ground state is increased. Although increased accuracy is in principle achievable by increasing the pump fluence in the reverse saturable absorption range, it is shown that the DPP is optimized by working in the saturable absorption regime.Two different approaches to increase intersystem crossing rates in polymethinelike molecules are presented: traditional heavy atom substitution and molecular levels engineering. Linear and nonlinear optical properties of a series of polymethine dyes with Br and Se atoms substitution, and a series of new squaraine molecules, where one or two oxygen atoms in a squaraine bridge are replaced with sulfur atoms, are investigated. A consequence of the oxygentosulfur substitution in squaraines is the inversion of their lowest lying ??* and n?* states leading to a significant reduction of singlettriplet energy difference and opening of an additional intersystem channel of relaxation. Experimental studies show that triplet quantum yields for polymethine dyes with heavyatom substitutions are small (not more than 10%), while for sulfurcontaining squaraines these values reach almost unity. Experimental results are in agreement with density functional theory calculations allowing determination of the energy positions, spinorbital coupling, and electronic configurations of the lowest electronic transitions.For three different semiconductors: GaAs, InP and InAsP two photon absorption, nonlinear refraction and free carrier absorption and refraction spectrums are measured using Zscan technique. Although two photon absorption spectrum agrees with the shape of theoretical prediction, values measured with picosecond system are off by the factor of two. Nonlinear refraction and free carrier nonlinearities are in relatively good agreement with theory. Theoretical values of the third order nonlinearities in GaAs are additionally confirmed with femtosecond Zscan measurements. Due to large spectral bandwidth of femtosecond laser, three photon absorption spectrum of GaAs was additionally measured using picosecond Zscan. Again, spectral shape is in excellent agreement with theory however values of three photon absorption cross sections are larger than theory predicts. ?
Show less  Date Issued
 2013
 Identifier
 CFE0004735, ucf:49815
 Format
 Document (PDF)
 PURL
 http://purl.flvc.org/ucf/fd/CFE0004735
 Title
 OPTICAL SOLITONS IN PERIODIC STRUCTURES.
 Creator

Makris, Konstantinos, Christodoulides, Demetrios, University of Central Florida
 Abstract / Description

By nature discrete solitons represent selftrapped wavepackets in nonlinear periodic structures and result from the interplay between lattice diffraction (or dispersion) and material nonlinearity. In optics, this class of selflocalized states has been successfully observed in both oneand twodimensional nonlinear waveguide arrays. In recent years such lattice structures have been implemented or induced in a variety of material systems including those with cubic (Kerr), quadratic,...
Show moreBy nature discrete solitons represent selftrapped wavepackets in nonlinear periodic structures and result from the interplay between lattice diffraction (or dispersion) and material nonlinearity. In optics, this class of selflocalized states has been successfully observed in both oneand twodimensional nonlinear waveguide arrays. In recent years such lattice structures have been implemented or induced in a variety of material systems including those with cubic (Kerr), quadratic, photorefractive, and liquidcrystal nonlinearities. In all cases the underlying periodicity or discreteness leads to new families of optical solitons that have no counterpart whatsoever in continuous systems. In the first part of this dissertation, a theoretical investigation of linear and nonlinear optical wave propagation in semiinfinite waveguide arrays is presented. In particular, the properties and the stability of surface solitons at the edge of Kerr (AlGaAs) and quadratic (LiNbO3) lattices are examined. Heterostructures of two dissimilar semiinfinite arrays are also considered. The existence of hybrid solitons in these latter types of structures is demonstrated. Rabitype optical transitions in zmodulated waveguide arrays are theoretically demonstrated. The corresponding coupled mode equations, that govern the energy oscillations between two different transmission bands, are derived. The results are compared with direct beam propagation simulations and are found to be in excellent agreement with coupled mode theory formulations. In the second part of this thesis, the concept of paritytimesymmetry is introduced in the context of optics. More specifically, periodic potentials associated with PTsymmetric Hamiltonians are numerically explored. These new optical structures are found to exhibit surprising characteristics. These include the possibility of abrupt phase transitions, band merging, nonorthogonality, nonreciprocity, double refraction, secondary emissions, as well as power oscillations. Even though gain/loss is present in this class of periodic potentials, the propagation eigenvalues are entirely real. This is a direct outcome of the PTsymmetry. Finally, discrete solitons in PTsymmetric optical lattices are examined in detail.
Show less  Date Issued
 2008
 Identifier
 CFE0002013, ucf:47610
 Format
 Document (PDF)
 PURL
 http://purl.flvc.org/ucf/fd/CFE0002013
 Title
 OPTICAL NONLINEAR INTERACTIONS IN DIELECTRIC NANOSUSPENSIONS.
 Creator

ElGanainy, Ramy, Christodoulides, Demetrios, University of Central Florida
 Abstract / Description

This work is divided into two main parts. In the first part (chapters 27) we consider the nonlinear response of nanoparticle colloidal systems. Starting from the NernstPlanck and Smoluchowski equations, we demonstrate that in these arrangements the underlying nonlinearities as well as the nonlinear Rayleigh losses depend exponentially on optical intensity. Two different nonlinear regimes are identified depending on the refractive index contrast of the nanoparticles involved and the...
Show moreThis work is divided into two main parts. In the first part (chapters 27) we consider the nonlinear response of nanoparticle colloidal systems. Starting from the NernstPlanck and Smoluchowski equations, we demonstrate that in these arrangements the underlying nonlinearities as well as the nonlinear Rayleigh losses depend exponentially on optical intensity. Two different nonlinear regimes are identified depending on the refractive index contrast of the nanoparticles involved and the interesting prospect of selfinduced transparency is demonstrated. Soliton stability is systematically analyzed for both 1D and 2D configurations and their propagation dynamics in the presence of Rayleigh losses is examined. We also investigate the modulation instability of plane waves and the transverse instabilities of soliton stripe beams propagating in nonlinear nanosuspensions. We show that in these systems, the process of modulational instability depends on the boundary conditions. On the other hand, the transverse instability of soliton stripes can exhibit new features as a result of 1D collapse caused by the exponential nonlinearity. Manybody effects on the systems' nonlinear response are also examined. Mayer cluster expansions are used in order to investigate particleparticle interactions. We show that the optical nonlinearity of these nanosuspensions can range anywhere from exponential to polynomial depending on the initial concentration and the chemistry of the electrolyte solution. The consequence of these interparticle interactions on the soliton dynamics and their stability properties are also studied. The second part deals with linear and nonlinear properties of optical nanowires and the coupled mode formalism of paritytime (PT) symmetric waveguides. Dispersion properties of AlGaAs nanowires are studied and it is shown that the group velocity dispersion in such waveguides can be negative, thus enabling temporal solitons. We have also studied power flow in nanowaveguides and we have shown that under certain conditions, optical pulses propagating in such structures will exhibit power circulations. Finally PT symmetric waveguides were investigated and a suitable coupled mode theory to describe these systems was developed.
Show less  Date Issued
 2009
 Identifier
 CFE0002847, ucf:48538
 Format
 Document (PDF)
 PURL
 http://purl.flvc.org/ucf/fd/CFE0002847
 Title
 Third Order Nonlinearity of Organic Molecules.
 Creator

Hu, Honghua, Vanstryland, Eric, Hagan, David, Zeldovich, Boris, Hernandez, Florencio, University of Central Florida
 Abstract / Description

The main goal of this dissertation is to investigate the thirdorder nonlinearity of organic molecules. This topic contains two aspects: twophoton absorption (2PA) and nonlinear refraction (NLR), which are associated with the imaginary and real part of the thirdorder nonlinearity (?(3)) of the material, respectively. With the optical properties tailored through meticulous molecular structure engineering, organic molecules are promising candidates to exhibit large thirdorder nonlinearities....
Show moreThe main goal of this dissertation is to investigate the thirdorder nonlinearity of organic molecules. This topic contains two aspects: twophoton absorption (2PA) and nonlinear refraction (NLR), which are associated with the imaginary and real part of the thirdorder nonlinearity (?(3)) of the material, respectively. With the optical properties tailored through meticulous molecular structure engineering, organic molecules are promising candidates to exhibit large thirdorder nonlinearities. Both linear (absorption, fluorescence, fluorescence excitation anisotropy) and nonlinear (Zscan, twophoton fluorescence, pumpprobe) techniques are described and utilized to fully characterize the spectroscopic properties of organic molecules in solution or solidstate form. These properties are then analyzed by quantum chemical calculations or other specific quantum mechanical model to understand the origins of the nonlinearities as well as the correlations with their unique molecular structural features. These calculations are performed by collaborators. The 2PA study of organic materials is focused on the structure2PA property relationships of four groups of dyes with specific molecular design approaches as the following: (1) Acceptor?Acceptor dyes for large 2PA cross section, (2) Donor?Acceptor dyes for strong solvatochromic effects upon the 2PA spectra, (3) Nearinfrared polymethine dyes for a symmetry breaking effect, (4) Sulfursquaraines vs. oxygensquaraines to study the role of sulfur atom replacement upon their 2PA spectra. Additionally, the 2PA spectrum of a solidstate single crystal made from a Donor?Acceptor dye is measured, and the anisotropic nonlinearity is studied with respect to different incident polarizations. These studies further advance our understanding towards an ultimate goal to a predictive capability for the 2PA properties of organic molecules. The NLR study on molecules is focused on the temporal and spectral dispersion of the nonlinear refraction index, n2, of the molecules. Complicated physical mechanisms, originating from either electronic transitions or nuclei movement, are introduced in general. By adopting a prism compressor / stretcher to control the pulsewidth, an evolution of n2 with respect to incident pulsewidth is measured on a simple inorganic molecule ()carbon disulfide (CS2) in neat liquid at 700 nm and 1064 nm to demonstrate the pulsewidth dependent nonlinear refraction. The n2 spectra of CS2 and certain organic molecules are measured by femtosecond pulses, which are then analyzed by a 3level model, a simplified (")Sumoverstates(") quantum mechanical model. These studies can serve as a precursor for future NLR investigations.
Show less  Date Issued
 2012
 Identifier
 CFE0004387, ucf:49400
 Format
 Document (PDF)
 PURL
 http://purl.flvc.org/ucf/fd/CFE0004387
 Title
 Ultrafast Mechanisms of Nonlinear Refraction and Twophoton Photochromism.
 Creator

Zhao, Peng, Hagan, David, Vanstryland, Eric, Christodoulides, Demetrios, Hernandez, Florencio, University of Central Florida
 Abstract / Description

Derived from a material's thirdorder nonlinearity, nonlinear refraction (NLR) occurs at any wavelength in any material, and may exhibit noninstantaneous dynamics depending on its physical origins. The main subject of this dissertation is to investigate the underlying mechanisms responsible for the NLR response in different phases of matter, e.g. liquids, gases, and semiconductors, by extensively using our recently developed ultrafast Beam Deflection (BD) technique. An additional subject...
Show moreDerived from a material's thirdorder nonlinearity, nonlinear refraction (NLR) occurs at any wavelength in any material, and may exhibit noninstantaneous dynamics depending on its physical origins. The main subject of this dissertation is to investigate the underlying mechanisms responsible for the NLR response in different phases of matter, e.g. liquids, gases, and semiconductors, by extensively using our recently developed ultrafast Beam Deflection (BD) technique. An additional subject includes the characterization of a novel twophoton photochromic molecule.In molecular liquids, the major nonlinear optical (NLO) response can be decomposed into a nearly instantaneous boundelectronic NLR (Kerr effect), originating from the real part the electronic second hyperpolarizability, ?, and noninstantaneous mechanisms due to nuclear motions. By adopting the methodology previously developed for carbon disulfide (CS2), we have measured the NLO response functions of 23 common organic solvents, providing a database of magnitudes and temporal dynamics of each mechanism, which can be used for predicting the outcomes of any other NLR related experiments such as Zscan. Also, these results provide insight to relate solvent nonlinearities with their molecular structures as well as linear polarizability tensors. In the measurements of air and gaseous CS2, coherent Raman excitation of many rotational states manifests as revivals in the transient NLR, from which we identify N2, O2 and two isotopologues of CS2, and unambiguously determine the dephasing rate, and rotational and centrifugal constants of each constituent. Using the revival signal as a selfreference, ? is directly measured for CS2 molecules in gas phase, which coincides with the ? determined from liquid phase measurements when including the LorentzLorenz local field correction. In semiconductors, the Kerr effect dominates the NLR in the subgap regime. Here, we primarily focus on investigating the dispersion of nondegenerate (ND) NLR, namely the refractive index change at frequency ?_a due to the presence of a beam at frequency ?_b. The magnitude and sign of the NDNLR coefficient n_2 (?_a;?_b ) are determined for ZnO, ZnSe and CdS over a broad spectral range for different values of nondegeneracy, which closely follows our earlier predictions based on nonlinear KramersKronig relations. In the extremely nondegenerate case, n_2 (?_a;?_b ) is positively enhanced near the twophoton absorption (2PA) edge, suggesting applications for nondegenerate alloptical switching. Additionally, n_2 (?_a;?_b ) exhibits a strong anomalous nonlinear dispersion within the ND2PA spectral region, providing a large phase modulation of a femtosecond pulse with bandwidth centered near the zerocrossing frequency. Another subject of this dissertation is the characterization of a spirotype twophoton photochromic molecule, in which F(&)#246;rster resonance energy transfer (FRET) is utilized to activate the ringopening effect from a 2PAdonor chromophore. Evidence of energy transfer is observed via fluorescence measurements of the quantum yield, excitation spectra and anisotropy. The absorption and lifetime of the open form are measured in a dyedoped solgel matrix. Transient absorption measurements indicate both ring opening and closing occurs on a several picosecond time scale along with multiple transient photoproducts, from which a high FRET efficiency is measured in agreement with theoretical predictions. This efficient 2PAFRET photochrome may be implemented into photonic devices such as optical memories. However, with a relatively small openform absorption cross section and significant ring closing, the photochrome may not be viable for enhancing nonlinear absorption in applications such as optical limiting.
Show less  Date Issued
 2016
 Identifier
 CFE0006517, ucf:51370
 Format
 Document (PDF)
 PURL
 http://purl.flvc.org/ucf/fd/CFE0006517
 Title
 Laser Filamentation  Beyond Selffocusing and Plasma Defocusing.
 Creator

Lim, Khan, Richardson, Martin, Chang, Zenghu, Christodoulides, Demetrios, Zhang, XiCheng, University of Central Florida
 Abstract / Description

Laser filamentation is a highly complex and dynamic nonlinear process that is sensitive to many physical parameters. The basic properties that define a filament consist of (i) a narrow, high intensity core that persists for distances much greater than the Rayleigh distance, (ii) a low density plasma channel existing within the filament core, and (iii) a supercontinuum generated over the course of filamentation. However, there remain many questions pertaining to how these basic properties are...
Show moreLaser filamentation is a highly complex and dynamic nonlinear process that is sensitive to many physical parameters. The basic properties that define a filament consist of (i) a narrow, high intensity core that persists for distances much greater than the Rayleigh distance, (ii) a low density plasma channel existing within the filament core, and (iii) a supercontinuum generated over the course of filamentation. However, there remain many questions pertaining to how these basic properties are affected by changes in the conditions in which the filaments are formed; that is the premise of the work presented in this dissertation.To examine the effects of anomalous dispersion and of different multiphoton ionization regimes, filaments were formed in solids with different laser wavelengths. The results provided a better understanding of supercontinuum generation in the anomalous dispersion regime, and of how multiphoton ionization can affect the formation of filaments.Three different experiments were carried out on filamentation in air. The first was an investigation into the effects of geometrical focusing. A simplified theoretical model was derived to determine the transition of filamentation in the linearfocusing and nonlinear focusing regimes. The second examined the effects of polarization on supercontinuum generation, where a polarizationdependent anomalous spectral broadening phenomenon due to molecular effects was identified. The third involved the characterization of filaments in the ultraviolet. The combination of physical mechanisms responsible for filamentation in the ultraviolet was found to be different from that in the near infrared.
Show less  Date Issued
 2014
 Identifier
 CFE0005520, ucf:50317
 Format
 Document (PDF)
 PURL
 http://purl.flvc.org/ucf/fd/CFE0005520
 Title
 ANALYTICAL AND NUMERICAL SOLUTIONS OF DIFFERENTIALEQUATIONS ARISING IN FLUID FLOW AND HEAT TRANSFER PROBLEMS.
 Creator

Sweet, Erik, Vajravelu, Kuppalapalle, University of Central Florida
 Abstract / Description

The solutions of nonlinear ordinary or partial differential equations are important in the study of fluid flow and heat transfer. In this thesis we apply the Homotopy Analysis Method (HAM) and obtain solutions for several fluid flow and heat transfer problems. In chapter 1, a brief introduction to the history of homotopies and embeddings, along with some examples, are given. The application of homotopies and an introduction to the solutions procedure of differential equations (used in the...
Show moreThe solutions of nonlinear ordinary or partial differential equations are important in the study of fluid flow and heat transfer. In this thesis we apply the Homotopy Analysis Method (HAM) and obtain solutions for several fluid flow and heat transfer problems. In chapter 1, a brief introduction to the history of homotopies and embeddings, along with some examples, are given. The application of homotopies and an introduction to the solutions procedure of differential equations (used in the thesis) are provided. In the chapters that follow, we apply HAM to a variety of problems to highlight its use and versatility in solving a range of nonlinear problems arising in fluid flow. In chapter 2, a viscous fluid flow problem is considered to illustrate the application of HAM. In chapter 3, we explore the solution of a nonNewtonian fluid flow and provide a proof for the existence of solutions. In addition, chapter 3 sheds light on the versatility and the ease of the application of the Homotopy Analysis Method, and its capability in handling nonlinearity (of rational powers). In chapter 4, we apply HAM to the case in which the fluid is flowing along stretching surfaces by taking into the effects of "slip" and suction or injection at the surface. In chapter 5 we apply HAM to a Magnetohydrodynamic fluid (MHD) flow in two dimensions. Here we allow for the fluid to flow between two plates which are allowed to move together or apart. Also, by considering the effects of suction or injection at the surface, we investigate the effects of changes in the fluid density on the velocity field. Furthermore, the effect of the magnetic field is considered. Chapter 6 deals with MHD fluid flow over a sphere. This problem gave us the first opportunity to apply HAM to a coupled system of nonlinear differential equations. In chapter 7, we study the fluid flow between two infinite stretching disks. Here we solve a fourth order nonlinear ordinary differential equation. In chapter 8, we apply HAM to a nonlinear system of coupled partial differential equations known as the Drinfeld Sokolov equations and bring out the effects of the physical parameters on the traveling wave solutions. Finally, in chapter 9, we present prospects for future work.
Show less  Date Issued
 2009
 Identifier
 CFE0002889, ucf:48017
 Format
 Document (PDF)
 PURL
 http://purl.flvc.org/ucf/fd/CFE0002889
 Title
 NUMERICAL MODELING OF WAVE PROPAGATION IN NONLINEAR PHOTONIC CRYSTAL FIBER.
 Creator

Khan, Md. Kaisar, Wu, Thomas, University of Central Florida
 Abstract / Description

In this dissertation, we propose numerical techniques to explain physical phenomenon of nonlinear photonic crystal fiber (PCF). We explain novel physical effects occurred in PCF subjected to very short duration pulses including soliton. To overcome the limitations in the analytical formulation for PCF, an accurate and efficient numerical analysis is required to explain both linear and nonlinear physical characteristics. A vector finite element based model was developed to precisely synthesize...
Show moreIn this dissertation, we propose numerical techniques to explain physical phenomenon of nonlinear photonic crystal fiber (PCF). We explain novel physical effects occurred in PCF subjected to very short duration pulses including soliton. To overcome the limitations in the analytical formulation for PCF, an accurate and efficient numerical analysis is required to explain both linear and nonlinear physical characteristics. A vector finite element based model was developed to precisely synthesize the guided modes in order to evaluate coupling coefficients, nonlinear coefficient and higher order dispersions of PCFs. This finite element model (FEM) is capable of evaluating coupling length of directional coupler implemented in dual core PCF, which was supported by existing experimental results. We used the parameters extracted from FEM in higher order coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equation (HCNLSE) to model short duration pulses including soliton propagation through the PCF. Splitstep Fourier Method (SSFM) was used to solve HCNLSE. Recently, reported experimental work reveals that the dual core PCF behaves like a nonlinear switch and also it initiates continuum generation which could be used as a broadband source for wavelength division multiplexing (WDM). These physical effects could not be explained by the existing analytical formulae such as the one used for the regular fiber. In PCF the electromagnetic wave encounters periodic changes of material that demand a numerical solution in both linear and nonlinear domain for better accuracy. Our numerical approach is capable of explaining switching and some of the spectral features found in the experiment with much higher degree of design freedom. Numerical results can also be used to further guide experiments and theoretical modeling.
Show less  Date Issued
 2008
 Identifier
 CFE0002248, ucf:47879
 Format
 Document (PDF)
 PURL
 http://purl.flvc.org/ucf/fd/CFE0002248
 Title
 LyapunovBased Control Design for Uncertain MIMO Systems.
 Creator

Wang, Zhao, Behal, Aman, Boloni, Ladislau, Haralambous, Michael, University of Central Florida
 Abstract / Description

In this dissertation. we document the progress in the control design for a class of MIMO nonlinear uncertain system from five papers. In the first part, we address the problem of adaptive control design for a class of multiinput multioutput (MIMO)nonlinear systems. A Lypaunov based singularity free control law, which compensates for parametric uncertainty in both the drift vector and the input gain matrix, is proposed under the mild assumption that the signs of the leading minors of...
Show moreIn this dissertation. we document the progress in the control design for a class of MIMO nonlinear uncertain system from five papers. In the first part, we address the problem of adaptive control design for a class of multiinput multioutput (MIMO)nonlinear systems. A Lypaunov based singularity free control law, which compensates for parametric uncertainty in both the drift vector and the input gain matrix, is proposed under the mild assumption that the signs of the leading minors of thecontrol input gain matrix are known. Lyapunov analysis shows global uniform ultimate boundedness (GUUB) result for the tracking error under full state feedback (FSFB). Under the restriction that only the output vector is available for measurement, an output feedback (OFB) controller is designed based on a standard high gain observer (HGO) () stability under OFB is fostered by the uniformity of the FSFB solution. Simulation results for both FSFB and OFB controllers demonstrate the ef?cacy of the MIMO control design in the classical 2DOF robot manipulator model.In the second part, an adaptive feedback control is designed for a class of MIMO nonlinear systems containing parametric uncertainty in both the drift vector and the input gain matrix, which is assumed to be fullrank and nonsymmetric in general. Based on an SDU decomposition of the gain matrix, a singularityfree adaptive tracking control law is proposed that is shown to be globally asymptotically stable (GAS) under fullstate feedback. Output feedback results are facilitated via the use of a highgain observer (HGO). Under output feedback control, ultimate boundedness of the error signals is obtained (&)#241; the size of the bound is related to the size of the uncertainty in the parameters. An explicit upper bound is also provided on the size of the HGO gain constant.In third part, a class of aeroelastic systems with an unmodeled nonlinearity and external disturbance is considered. By using leading and trailingedge control surface actuations, a fullstate feedforward/feedback controller is designed to suppress the aeroelastic vibrations of a nonlinear wing section subject to external disturbance. The fullstate feedback control yields a uniformly ultimately bounded result for twoaxis vibration suppression. With the restriction that only pitching and plunging displacements are measurable while their rates are not, a highgain observer is used to modify the fullstate feedback control design to an output feedback design. Simulation results demonstrate the ef ? cacy of the multiinput multioutput control toward suppressing aeroelastic vibration and limit cycle oscillations occurring in pre and post? utter velocity regimes when the system is subjected to a variety of external disturbance signals. Comparisons are drawn with a previously designed adaptive multiinput multioutput controller.In the fourth part, a continuous robust feedback control is designed for a class of highorder multiinput multioutput (MIMO) nonlinear systems with two degrees of freedom containing unstructured nonlinear uncertainties in the drift vector and parametric uncertainties in the high frequency gain matrix, which is allowed to be nonsymmetric in general. Given some mild assumptions on the system model, a singularityfree continuous robust tracking control law is designed that is shown to be semiglobally asymptotically stable under fullstate feedback through a Lyapunov stability analysis. The performance of the proposed algorithm have been verified on a twolink robot manipulator model and 2DOF aeroelastic model.
Show less  Date Issued
 2012
 Identifier
 CFE0004345, ucf:49420
 Format
 Document (PDF)
 PURL
 http://purl.flvc.org/ucf/fd/CFE0004345
 Title
 FABRICATION OF INTEGRATED OPTOFLUIDIC CIRCUITS IN CHALCOGENIDE GLASS USING FEMTOSECOND LASER DIRECT WRITING.
 Creator

Anderson, Troy, Richardson, Martin, University of Central Florida
 Abstract / Description

Femtosecond laser direct writing (FLDW) is a versatile process that uses focused femtosecond pulses to modify the physical structure of a material, which can result in a shift of optical properties such as the linear and nonlinear refractive index. If the photon energy of the femtosecond pulses lies below the material bandgap, nonlinear absorption rather than linear absorption becomes the dominant mechanism of energy transfer to the material. In this manner, a focused femtosecond pulse train...
Show moreFemtosecond laser direct writing (FLDW) is a versatile process that uses focused femtosecond pulses to modify the physical structure of a material, which can result in a shift of optical properties such as the linear and nonlinear refractive index. If the photon energy of the femtosecond pulses lies below the material bandgap, nonlinear absorption rather than linear absorption becomes the dominant mechanism of energy transfer to the material. In this manner, a focused femtosecond pulse train can be used to fabricate functional features such as optical waveguides, diffractive optical elements, or microfluidic elements within the volume of a transparent medium. In this dissertation, the utility of femtosecond laser processing as a fabrication technique of optical and microfluidic elements in chalcogenide glasses is explored. The photoinduced modifications of optical and chemical parameters of new germaniumbased Chalcogenide glasses in both bulk and thinfilm form are characterized for the first time and the impact of material composition and laser fabrication parameters are discussed. The glasses are found to display an increase in volume, a decrease of the linear optical refractive index, and an increase of the nonlinear refractive index when exposed to femtosecond laser pulses. A model based on avalanche ionization and multiphoton ionization is used to describe the highly nonlinear absorption of laser light in the material and correlate the photoinduced modifications to the electron density generated during irradiation. The magnitude of the induced photo modification is shown to be dependent on laser parameters such as laser dose and repetition rate. The fabrication of microfluidic elements through both direct ablation and the preferential etching of photomodified regions is also explored. Finally, the integration of both optical elements and fluidic elements fabricated by FLDW into a single substrate is discussed.
Show less  Date Issued
 2010
 Identifier
 CFE0002978, ucf:47965
 Format
 Document (PDF)
 PURL
 http://purl.flvc.org/ucf/fd/CFE0002978
 Title
 Coupling of Laser Beams for Filament Propagation.
 Creator

Kepler, Daniel, Richardson, Martin, Baudelet, Matthieu, Christodoulides, Demetrios, University of Central Florida
 Abstract / Description

Laser filamentation is a nonlinear process involving highenergy, ultrashort pulses that create narrow, nondiffracting structures over many times the Raleigh length. While many of the characteristics of filaments can vary greatly depending on the physical parameters used to create them, they share several defining features: a high intensity core, a lower intensity cladding of photons that serves as an energy reservoir to the core, and spectral broadening into a supercontinuum. While there...
Show moreLaser filamentation is a nonlinear process involving highenergy, ultrashort pulses that create narrow, nondiffracting structures over many times the Raleigh length. While many of the characteristics of filaments can vary greatly depending on the physical parameters used to create them, they share several defining features: a high intensity core, a lower intensity cladding of photons that serves as an energy reservoir to the core, and spectral broadening into a supercontinuum. While there have been many studies on the creation and control of multiple filaments from one laser pulse and a few studies on the interaction of two single filaments, many fundamental questions concerning the nature of this interaction still exist.This thesis seeks to explore the correlation between ultrashort pulses involving spatial separation, temporal delay, and relative degree of polarization using an interferometric approach. Evaluating the beam profiles and spectrum that result from varying those parameters.
Show less  Date Issued
 2016
 Identifier
 CFE0006531, ucf:51374
 Format
 Document (PDF)
 PURL
 http://purl.flvc.org/ucf/fd/CFE0006531
 Title
 Nonlinear Optical Response of Simple Molecules and TwoPhoton Semiconductor Lasers.
 Creator

Reichert, Matthew, Vanstryland, Eric, Hagan, David, Likamwa, Patrick, Peale, Robert, University of Central Florida
 Abstract / Description

This dissertation investigates two long standing issues in nonlinear optics: complete characterization of the ultrafast dynamics of simple molecules, and the potential of a twophoton laser using a bulk semiconductor gain medium. Within the BornOppenheimer approximation, nonlinear refraction in molecular liquids and gases can arise from both boundelectronic and nuclear origins. Knowledge of the magnitudes, temporal dynamics, polarization and spectral dependences of each of these mechanisms...
Show moreThis dissertation investigates two long standing issues in nonlinear optics: complete characterization of the ultrafast dynamics of simple molecules, and the potential of a twophoton laser using a bulk semiconductor gain medium. Within the BornOppenheimer approximation, nonlinear refraction in molecular liquids and gases can arise from both boundelectronic and nuclear origins. Knowledge of the magnitudes, temporal dynamics, polarization and spectral dependences of each of these mechanisms is important for many applications including filamentation, whitelight continuum generation, alloptical switching, and nonlinear spectroscopy. In this work the nonlinear dynamics of molecules are investigated in both liquid and gas phase with the recently developed beam deflection technique which measures nonlinear refraction directly in the time domain. Thanks to the utility of the beam deflection technique we are able to completely determine the thirdorder response function of one of the most important molecular liquids in nonlinear optics, carbon disulfide. This allows the prediction of essentially any nonlinear refraction or twophoton absorption experiment on CS2. Measurements conducted on air (N2 and O2) and gaseous CS2 reveal coherent rotational revivals in the degree of alignment of the ensemble at a period that depends on its moment of inertia. This allows measurement of the rotational and centrifugal distortion constants of the isolated molecules. Additionally, the rotational contribution to the beam deflection measurement can be eliminated thanks to the particular polarization dependence of the mechanism. At a specific polarization, the dominant remaining contribution is due to the boundelectrons. Thus both the boundelectronic nonlinear refractive index of air, and second hyperpolarizability of isolated CS2 molecules, are measured directly. The later agrees well with liquid CS2 measurements, where local field effects are significant. The second major portion of this dissertation addresses the possibility of using bulk semiconductors as a twophoton gain medium. A twophoton laser has been a goal of nonlinear optics since shortly after the original laser's development. In this case, twophotons are emitted from a single electronic transition rather than only one. This processes is known as twophoton gain (2PG). Semiconductors have large twophoton absorption coefficients, which are enhanced by ~2 orders of magnitude when using photons of very different energies, e.g., ??_a?10??_b. This enhancement should translate into large 2PG coefficients as well, given the inverse relationship between absorption and gain. Here, we experimentally demonstrate both degenerate and nondegenerate 2PG in optically excited bulk GaAs via pumpprobe experiments. This constitutes, to my knowledge, the first report of nondegenerate twophoton gain. Competition between 2PG and competing processes, namely intervalence band and nondegenerate threephoton absorption (ND3PA), in both cases are theoretically analyzed. Experimental measurements of ND3PA agree with this analysis and show that it is enhanced much more than ND2PG. It is found for both degenerate and nondegenerate photon pairs that the losses dominate the twophoton gain, preventing the possibility of a twophoton semiconductor laser.
Show less  Date Issued
 2015
 Identifier
 CFE0005874, ucf:50871
 Format
 Document (PDF)
 PURL
 http://purl.flvc.org/ucf/fd/CFE0005874
 Title
 SOLITON SOLUTIONS OF NONLINEAR PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS USING VARIATIONAL APPROXIMATIONS AND INVERSE SCATTERING TECHNIQUES.
 Creator

Vogel, Thomas, Kaup, David, University of Central Florida
 Abstract / Description

Throughout the last several decades many techniques have been developed in establishing solutions to nonlinear partial differential equations (NPDE). These techniques are characterized by their limited reach in solving large classes of NPDE. This body of work will study the analysis of NPDE using two of the most ubiquitous techniques developed in the last century. In this body of work, the analysis and techniques herein are applied to unsolved physical problems in both the fields of...
Show moreThroughout the last several decades many techniques have been developed in establishing solutions to nonlinear partial differential equations (NPDE). These techniques are characterized by their limited reach in solving large classes of NPDE. This body of work will study the analysis of NPDE using two of the most ubiquitous techniques developed in the last century. In this body of work, the analysis and techniques herein are applied to unsolved physical problems in both the fields of variational approximations and inverse scattering transform. Additionally, a new technique for estimating the error of a variational approximation is established. Note that the material in chapter 2, "Quantitative Measurements of Variational Approximations" has recently been published. Variational problems have long been used to mathematically model physical systems. Their advantage has been the simplicity of the model as well as the ability to deduce information concerning the functional dependence of the system on various parameters embedded in the variational trial functions. However, the only method in use for estimating the error in a variational approximation has been to compare the variational result to the exact solution. In this work, it is demonstrated that one can computationally obtain estimates of the errors in a onedimensional variational approximation, without any a priori knowledge of the exact solution. Additionally, this analysis can be done by using only linear techniques. The extension of this method to multidimensional problems is clearly possible, although one could expect that additional difficulties would arise. One condition for the existence of a localized soliton is that the propagation constant does not fall into the continuous spectrum of radiation modes. For a higher order dispersive systems, the linear dispersion relation exhibits a multiple branch structure. It could be the case that in a certain parameter region for which one of the components of the solution has oscillations (i.e., is in the continuous spectrum), there exists a discrete value of the propagation constant, k(ES), for which the oscillations have zero amplitude. The associated solution is referred to as an embedded soliton (ES). This work examines the ES solutions in a CHI(2):CHI(3), type II system. The method employed in searching for the ES solutions is a variational method recently developed by Kaup and Malomed [Phys. D 184, 15361 (2003)] to locate ES solutions in a SHG system. The variational results are validated by numerical integration of the governing system. A model used for the 1D longitudinal wave propagation in microstructured solids is a KdVtype equation with third and fifth order dispersions as well as first and third order nonlinearities. Recent work by Ilison and Salupere (2004) has identified certain types of soliton solutions in the aforementioned model. The present work expands the known family of soliton solutions in the model to include embedded solitons. The existence of embedded solitons with respect to the dispersion parameters is determined by a variational approximation. The variational results are validated with selected numerical solutions.
Show less  Date Issued
 2007
 Identifier
 CFE0001800, ucf:47379
 Format
 Document (PDF)
 PURL
 http://purl.flvc.org/ucf/fd/CFE0001800
 Title
 DISCRETE NONLINEAR WAVE PROPAGATION IN KERR NONLINEAR MEDIA.
 Creator

Meier, Joachim, Stegeman, George, University of Central Florida
 Abstract / Description

Discrete optical systems are a subgroup of periodic structures in which the evolution of a continuous electromagnetic field can be described by a discrete model. In this model, the total field is the sum of localized, discrete modes. Weakly coupled arrays of single mode channel waveguides have been known to fall into this class of systems since the late 1960's. Nonlinear discrete optics has received a considerable amount of interest in the last few years, triggered by the experimental...
Show moreDiscrete optical systems are a subgroup of periodic structures in which the evolution of a continuous electromagnetic field can be described by a discrete model. In this model, the total field is the sum of localized, discrete modes. Weakly coupled arrays of single mode channel waveguides have been known to fall into this class of systems since the late 1960's. Nonlinear discrete optics has received a considerable amount of interest in the last few years, triggered by the experimental realization of discrete solitons in a Kerr nonlinear AlGaAs waveguide array by H. Eisenberg and coworkers in 1998. In this work a detailed experimental investigation of discrete nonlinear wave propagation and the interactions between beams, including discrete solitons, in discrete systems is reported for the case of a strong Kerr nonlinearity. The possibility to completely overcome "discrete" diffraction and create highly localized solitons, in a scalar or vector geometry, as well as the limiting factors in the formation of such nonlinear waves is discussed. The reversal of the sign of diffraction over a range of propagation angles leads to the stability of plane waves in a material with positive nonlinearity. This behavior can not be found in continuous selffocusing materials where plane waves are unstable against perturbations. The stability of plane waves in the anomalous diffraction region, even at highest powers, has been experimentally verified. The interaction of high power beams and discrete solitons in arrays has been studied in detail. Of particular interest is the experimental verification of a theoretically predicted unique, all optical switching scheme, based on the interaction of a so called "blocker" soliton with a second beam. This switching method has been experimentally realized for both the coherent and incoherent case. Limitations of such schemes due to nonlinear losses at the required high powers are shown.
Show less  Date Issued
 2004
 Identifier
 CFE0000186, ucf:46176
 Format
 Document (PDF)
 PURL
 http://purl.flvc.org/ucf/fd/CFE0000186
 Title
 QUADRATIC SPATIAL SOLITON INTERACTIONS.
 Creator

Jankovic, Ladislav, Stegeman, George I., University of Central Florida
 Abstract / Description

Quadratic spatial soliton interactions were investigated in this Dissertation. The first part deals with characterizing the principal features of multisoliton generation and soliton selfreflection. The second deals with two beam processes leading to soliton interactions and collisions. These subjects were investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The experiments were performed by using potassium niobate (KNBO3) and periodically poled potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) crystals....
Show moreQuadratic spatial soliton interactions were investigated in this Dissertation. The first part deals with characterizing the principal features of multisoliton generation and soliton selfreflection. The second deals with two beam processes leading to soliton interactions and collisions. These subjects were investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The experiments were performed by using potassium niobate (KNBO3) and periodically poled potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) crystals. These particular crystals were desirable for these experiments because of their large nonlinear coefficients and, more importantly, because the experiments could be performed under noncriticalphasematching (NCPM) conditions. The single soliton generation measurements, performed on KNBO3 by launching the fundamental component only, showed a broad angular acceptance bandwidth which was important for the soliton collisions performed later. Furthermore, at high input intensities multisoliton generation was observed for the first time. The influence on the multisoliton patterns generated of the input intensity and beam symmetry was investigated. The combined experimental and theoretical efforts indicated that spatial and temporal noise on the input laser beam induced multisoliton patterns. Another research direction pursued was intensity dependent soliton routing by using of a specially engineered quadratically nonlinear interface within a periodically poled KTP sample. This was the first time demonstration of the selfreflection phenomenon in a system with a quadratic nonlinearity. The feature investigated is believed to have a great potential for soliton routing and manipulation by engineered structures. A detailed investigation was conducted on two soliton interaction and collision processes. Birth of an additional soliton resulting from a two soliton collision was observed and characterized for the special case of a nonplanar geometry. A small amount of spiraling, up to 30 degrees rotation, was measured in the experiments performed. The parameters relevant for characterizing soliton collision processes were also studied in detail. Measurements were performed for various collision angles (from 0.2 to 4 degrees), phase mismatch, relative phase between the solitons and the distance to the collision point within the sample (which affects soliton formation). Both the individual and combined effects of these collision variables were investigated. Based on the research conducted, several alloptical switching scenarios were proposed.
Show less  Date Issued
 2004
 Identifier
 CFE0000090, ucf:46135
 Format
 Document (PDF)
 PURL
 http://purl.flvc.org/ucf/fd/CFE0000090
 Title
 PERIODIC NONLINEAR REFRACTIVE INDEX OF CARBON DISULFIDE VAPORS.
 Creator

Strunk, Evelyn, Hagan, David, University of Central Florida
 Abstract / Description

The purpose of this thesis is to explore the nonlinear refractive index of carbon disulfide vapors as opposed to its liquid form. With CS2 vapors, the vapors are less dense so they will rotate longer than liquid CS2 because there are less intermolecular interactions. The electric field of the beam causes the molecules to align with the electric field and applies a torque to the molecules. After this excitation, the molecules continue rotating. The rotations change the index of refraction of...
Show moreThe purpose of this thesis is to explore the nonlinear refractive index of carbon disulfide vapors as opposed to its liquid form. With CS2 vapors, the vapors are less dense so they will rotate longer than liquid CS2 because there are less intermolecular interactions. The electric field of the beam causes the molecules to align with the electric field and applies a torque to the molecules. After this excitation, the molecules continue rotating. The rotations change the index of refraction of the material. Continuous rotation of the molecules causes the index of refraction to be periodic which means the molecules are going through multiple revivals. I will analyze this periodic nonlinear index of refraction. However, some problems occurred while the experiment was being done as well as some issues of measuring CS2 because of white light continuum generation in the cell walls. To avoid these issues we measured the air in the lab and were able to observe the periodic change of index of refraction for O2 and N2 .
Show less  Date Issued
 2014
 Identifier
 CFH0004619, ucf:45270
 Format
 Document (PDF)
 PURL
 http://purl.flvc.org/ucf/fd/CFH0004619
 Title
 PROCESS AND MIND: EXPLORING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PROCESS PHILOSOPHY AND THE NONLINEAR DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS SCIENCE OF COGNITION.
 Creator

Moralez, Larry A, Favela, Luis H., University of Central Florida
 Abstract / Description

This work examines the relationship between Alfred North Whitehead's process philosophy and the nonlinear dynamical systems framework for studying cognition. I argue that the nonlinear dynamical systems approach to cognitive science presupposes many key elements of his process philosophy. The process philosophical interpretation of nature posits events and the dynamic relations between events as the fundamental substrate of reality, as opposed to static physical substances. I present a brief...
Show moreThis work examines the relationship between Alfred North Whitehead's process philosophy and the nonlinear dynamical systems framework for studying cognition. I argue that the nonlinear dynamical systems approach to cognitive science presupposes many key elements of his process philosophy. The process philosophical interpretation of nature posits events and the dynamic relations between events as the fundamental substrate of reality, as opposed to static physical substances. I present a brief history of the development of substance thought before describing Whitehead's characterization of nature as a process. In following, I will examine the both the computational and nonlinear dynamical systems frameworks for investigating cognition. I will show that the computational paradigm is subject to many of the same criticisms as substance. Conversely, I will show that nonlinear dynamical cognitive science avoids these criticisms and is congenial to Whitehead's philosophy insofar as it is suitable for describing emergent processes. To conclude, I suggest that the nonlinear dynamical cognitive science confirms and validates Whitehead's philosophy. Furthermore, I argue that process philosophy is an appropriate characterization of nature for guiding inquiry in cognitive science.
Show less  Date Issued
 2016
 Identifier
 CFH2000091, ucf:45553
 Format
 Document (PDF)
 PURL
 http://purl.flvc.org/ucf/fd/CFH2000091
 Title
 On Hall Magnetohydrodynamics: Xtype Neutral Point and Parker Problem.
 Creator

Reger, Kyle, Shivamoggi, Bhimsen, Rollins, David, Eastes, Richard, University of Central Florida
 Abstract / Description

The framework for the Hall magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model for plasma physics is built up from kinetic theory and used to analytically solve problems of interest in the field. The Hall MHD model describes fast magnetic reconnection processes in space and laboratory plasmas. Specifically, the magnetic reconnection process at an Xtype neutral point, where current sheets form and store enormous amounts of magnetic energy which is later released as magnetic storms when the sheets break up, is...
Show moreThe framework for the Hall magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model for plasma physics is built up from kinetic theory and used to analytically solve problems of interest in the field. The Hall MHD model describes fast magnetic reconnection processes in space and laboratory plasmas. Specifically, the magnetic reconnection process at an Xtype neutral point, where current sheets form and store enormous amounts of magnetic energy which is later released as magnetic storms when the sheets break up, is investigated. The phenomena of magnetic flux pileup driving the merging of antiparallel magnetic fields at an ion stagnationpoint flow in a thin current sheet, called the Parker problem, also receives rigorous mathematical analysis.
Show less  Date Issued
 2012
 Identifier
 CFE0004428, ucf:49345
 Format
 Document (PDF)
 PURL
 http://purl.flvc.org/ucf/fd/CFE0004428
 Title
 Techniques for characterization of third order optical nonlinearities.
 Creator

Ferdinandus, Manuel, Hagan, David, Vanstryland, Eric, Christodoulides, Demetrios, Hernandez, Florencio, University of Central Florida
 Abstract / Description

This dissertation describes the development of novel techniques for characterization of nonlinear properties of materials. The dissertation is divided into two parts, a background and theory section and a technique development section.In the background and theory section we explain the origins of the nonlinear optical response of materials across many different spatial and temporal scales. The mechanisms that we are most interested in are the electronic nuclear and reorientational responses,...
Show moreThis dissertation describes the development of novel techniques for characterization of nonlinear properties of materials. The dissertation is divided into two parts, a background and theory section and a technique development section.In the background and theory section we explain the origins of the nonlinear optical response of materials across many different spatial and temporal scales. The mechanisms that we are most interested in are the electronic nuclear and reorientational responses, which occur on the range of subfemtosecond to several picoseconds. The electronic mechanism is due to the electrons of a material experiencing a nonparabolic potential well due a strong electric field and occurs on the subfemtosecond timescale. The nuclear or vibrational effect results from the motion of the nuclei of the atoms and typically occurs on the order of a few hundred femtoseconds. Finally the reorientational nonlinearity is due to the alignment of the molecule to the electric field, which alters the polarizability of the molecule and typically occurs on the scale of a few picoseconds. There are other mechanisms can induce nonlinear optical effects such as thermal effects and electrostriction, but these effects typically occur on much larger timescales than we are interested in, and hence will not be a major focus of this dissertation.In the nonlinear characterization techniques section, we describe previous research into the field of nonlinear optical characterization techniques, describing the techniques used to characterize the nonlinear properties of materials, their applications and limitations. We will trace the development of two recently developed techniques for nonlinear spectroscopy ? the Dual Arm ZScan and the Beam Deflection techniques. The Dual Arm ZScan technique is an enhancement of the standard ZScan technique that allows for the measurement of small nonlinear signals in the presence of large background signals. This technique allows for the measurement of materials under certain conditions not previously measureable using the standard ZScan technique, such materials with low damage thresholds, poor solubility and thin films.In addition to the Dual Arm ZScan, we have developed a new method for characterizing nonlinear refraction, the Beam Deflection technique, which is a variation of the photothermal beam deflection technique previously used to measure very weak absorption signals. This technique offers relative ease of use, the ability to measure the absolute magnitude and sign of both the real and imaginary parts of ?^((3)) simultaneously with high sensitivity. We fully develop the theory for materials with instantaneous and noninstantaneous nonlinearities, with nonlinear absorption and group velocity mismatch. We also demonstrate the power of this technique to separate the isotropic and reorientational contributions of liquids by examining the temporal response and polarization dependences.Lastly, we summarize our conclusions and describe two promising future research directions that would benefit from the Dual Arm ZScan and Beam Deflection techniques.
Show less  Date Issued
 2013
 Identifier
 CFE0005164, ucf:50709
 Format
 Document (PDF)
 PURL
 http://purl.flvc.org/ucf/fd/CFE0005164
 Title
 Monolithically Integrated InPbased Unidirectional Circulators Utilizing nonHermiticity and Nonlinearity.
 Creator

Aleahmad, Parinaz, Christodoulides, Demetrios, Delfyett, Peter, Likamwa, Patrick, Moya Cessa, Hector Manual, University of Central Florida
 Abstract / Description

The need to integrate critical optical components on a single chip has been an ongoing quest in both optoelectronics and optical communication systems. Among the possible devices, elements supporting nonreciprocal transmission are of great interest for applications where signal routing and isolation is required. In this respect, breaking reciprocity is typically accomplished via Faraday rotation through appropriate magnetooptical arrangements. Unfortunately, standard light emitting...
Show moreThe need to integrate critical optical components on a single chip has been an ongoing quest in both optoelectronics and optical communication systems. Among the possible devices, elements supporting nonreciprocal transmission are of great interest for applications where signal routing and isolation is required. In this respect, breaking reciprocity is typically accomplished via Faraday rotation through appropriate magnetooptical arrangements. Unfortunately, standard light emitting optoelectronic materials like for example IIIV semiconductors, lack magnetooptical properties and hence cannot be directly used in this capacity. To address these issues, a number of different tactics have been attempted in the last few years. These range from directly bonding garnets on chip, to parametric structures and unidirectional nonlinear arrangements involving ring resonators, to mention a few. Clearly, of importance will be to realize families of nonreciprocal devises that not only can be miniaturized and readily integrated on chip but they also rely on physical processes that are indigenous to the semiconductor wafer itself. Quite recently we have theoretically shown that such unidirectional systems can be implemented, provided one simultaneously exploits the presence of gain/loss processes and optical nonlinearities. In principle, these alldielectric structures can be broadband, polarization insensitive, colorpreserving, and can display appreciable isolation ratios provided they are used under pulsed conditions. In this study, we experimentally demonstrate a compact, monolithically integrated unidirectional 4(&)#215;4 optical circulator, based on nonreciprocal optical transmission through successive amplification/attenuation stages and elements with very large resonance nonlinearities associated with InGaAsP quantum wells. Our results indicate that isolation ratios over 20dB can be experimentally achieved in pulsemode operation. Our design can be effortlessly extended to other existing optoelectronic device systems beyond InP.
Show less  Date Issued
 2016
 Identifier
 CFE0006522, ucf:51373
 Format
 Document (PDF)
 PURL
 http://purl.flvc.org/ucf/fd/CFE0006522